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Identification et Application Agronomique de Synergistes Végétaux de la Phéromone du Charançon Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) 1790

Arman Avand-Faghih 
Abstract : ABSTRACT: The Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) is the most destructive insect pest of culti-vated palms in Asia, Middle-East and Mediterranean basin. Semiochemical-based trapping can play an important role in the integrated management of this pest but the necessity of using plant material as a synergist of the aggregation phero-mone has limited the efficacy and development of the trapping in desert areas. In order to use a synthetic pheromone synergist we screened by field trapping the synergistic effect of molecules identified: 1) in odours isolated from date palm stem, the host plant of R. ferrugineus in Middle-East; 2) from other host plant of Rhynchophorus spp. described in the bibliography or with related structures. Coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the components of the odours of date palm stem isolated by effluvia collection. Components of the odours of date palm stem putatively active on the insect's behaviour were screened by coupled gas chromatography-electroanten-nodetection (GC-EAG). A morphofonctional study of the antenna by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and elec-troantennography (EAG) was realised prior to GC-EAG to verify whether there is an olfactory regionalisation on the antennal club. Four major types of hairs were identified, same as described in R. palmarum. Two types of hairs corres-pond to trichoid and basiconic olfactory sensilla. Density of basiconic sensilla is higher on female than male antennal club and on internal than external face of the club in both sexes. EAG amplitudes to six molecules were higher when the recording electrode was connected onto the internal compared to the external face but the same response profile was obtained on dorsal, central or ventral positions of each club face. A total of 109 molecules were identified in odours from date palm. Ten molecules were antennally active by GC-EAG, of which anisole was identified. The pherosyner-gistic effects of two blends based on the analyses of odours from date palm, one blend of EAG active molecules and 21 blends based on 52 molecules reported from the literature were studied. Among all blends, a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate (50:50 in volume) emitted at 300 mg/d was as pherosynergistic as 0.35 and, sometimes, 1.2 kg of date palm stem. There was a strong variability of the relative effect of this blend with respect to the date palm tissue during three years of experiments. None of the more complex blends was more efficient. The antennal activity of the unidenti-fied components of the natural odours and the absence of activity of the tested molecules show the important role of the unidentified components and/or the existence of mixture effects not evaluated during this research. The mixture of etha-nol and ethyl acetate is a simple, cheap and interesting blend as an alternative for plant baits for R. ferrugineus trapping in the present situation where no alternative to the plant synergist is available.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 21, 2004 - 8:00:00 AM
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Arman Avand-Faghih. Identification et Application Agronomique de Synergistes Végétaux de la Phéromone du Charançon Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) 1790. Life Sciences [q-bio]. INAPG (AgroParisTech), 2004. English. ⟨NNT : 2004INAP0003⟩. ⟨pastel-00000692⟩



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