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Qualification de l'origine des viandes bovines selon les manières de produire. Le rôle des savoir-faire professionnels et les enjeux de leur couplage

Abstract : Strongly shaken by the food crises of the last decade, consumers are gaining back confidence of the sanitary quality of the beef products. Probably as a consequence, those recent events have reactivated strong concerns for a better knowledge of the "origin" of the beef meat (linked with meat and livestock production system and its location). However, very few projects are dealing with such a qualification of the beef meat contrary to what is observed for other foodstuffs. To understand such a deficiency, we decided first to study the hindrances for differentiating beef meats. The principal obstacle is due to the complexity of the distribution chain and to the weakness of the communications between the various actors of that chain. As a result, the origin of the piece of meat is difficult to trace back. Consequently, we postulated that the best way to build up the construction of the origin of the meats was to connect the various actors and their crafts in order to clear and assure the links between the animal, its carcass and its meat. Nevertheless, those links are not self-evident. In particular they require the agreements between the professionals. They should be built on technical tools specifically dedicated to the transmission of the origin through the chain including in particular grids of evaluation of the animals and of the carcasses, codes of practices, interprofessional commission, and slaughtering and carving conditions. We tested our ideas by analysing five French projects of certification of the origin of beef meats concerning around 10.000 animals. We observed in particular the technical operations of the stockbreeders and of the butchers engaged in those projects. We used different new specific paradigms and methods for describing the know-how of those professionals. In a first step we specified, for each type of animal, the know-how of stockbreeders to rear their animals and of the butchers to transform the carcasses in pieces of meat. For that, we developed a modern methodology for the analysis of know-how. We applied it in particular to the butchers in order to give a signification to the different techniques of cutting. One thousand surveys, direct observations of the activities and the video recording of the operator were done, in particular during the carving of the carcass (8 cases). Then, we collected his/her comments ex post when confronted with the previous record of his/her activity. This work enabled us to define among the complex carving operations, those ones specific to the local know-how that contribute significantly to the qualification of the origin of the meats. In a second step, two main tracks for transmitting the origin from the animal to the piece of meat were highlighted by modelling them: - In some cases, the carcass is informative and the technical operations are mainly directed around its qualification. The modes of carving of the meat are in this case very important for revealing the potential of "typicity" of the meats in its various culinary uses. - In others cases, the carcass is not informative of the type of meat. In other words, this type of carcass does not offer a good reference of the origin of the animal. So, the animal is directly connected with its meat. The agreement between the stockbreeders and the butchers on the type of animal is, in this case, essential to produce a suited animal and not more the carving, as in the previous case. Whatever, the way of the transport of the origin chosen, the connection between the different actors requires that each parts of the supply chain imagine a technical "solidarity" that the current technical tools of supply chain are to a great extent erasing.
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Contributor : Ecole Agroparistech <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, July 21, 2004 - 8:00:00 AM
Last modification on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 11:12:44 AM

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  • HAL Id : pastel-00000783, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 245252

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Trift Nicolas. Qualification de l'origine des viandes bovines selon les manières de produire. Le rôle des savoir-faire professionnels et les enjeux de leur couplage. Planète et Univers [physics]. INAPG (AgroParisTech), 2003. Français. ⟨NNT : 2003INAP0032⟩. ⟨pastel-00000783⟩

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