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Spectroscopie X de plasmas hors équilibre thermodynamique.

Abstract : The subject of this thesis is in the general context of the study radiative properties of hot plasmas. The state "plasma" is the fourth state of matter, following in the temperature scale statements "conventional" solid, liquid and gas. It is a diluted form consists of charged particles-electrons and positive ions, in proportion as the environment is broadly neutral. Plasmas represent significant percentages of our environment. Present mainly in the universe are found in objects astrophysical such as stars, or planetary atmospheres for some examples. Until the 50s, the study of plasmas created in the lab was limited to the discharge in gases. It was then dealing with partially ionized plasmas, where a large proportion of atoms constituting the gas remained in a bound state. In addition, contributions to the understanding of basic physical phenomena of this state of matter were mainly astrophysicists and geophysicists. The rise plasma physics today actually begins with research associated with inertial confinement fusion (ICF), proposed for first time by Dawson in 1964. In this scheme, a target DT (Deuterium-tritium) is heated and compressed to ignition by laser power (direct attack) or X-rays generated in a cavity material of high atomic number Z heated by lasers (attack indirect). This quest for fusion is mainly responsible for the development of lasers that are demanding more and more power. Created by and heated by laser radiation, hot plasmas emit in a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum: from radio-electric radiation X-radiation The radiative emission laboratory plasmas is a true indicator of their density, temperature and their state of ionization. Thus, the study of these plasmas is involves many fields such as atomic physics, physics Statistically, the hydrodynamic equations and finally the equations of radiative transfer. Multiple applications are coming in search of motivation plasmas created by laser, to the wide range of density-temperature available in the laboratory. It may for example include microscopy and X lithography. In addition, the development of powerful lasers delivering 2 ultra-short pulses (≤ 1 ps) in the range of terawatt opened the door to new avenues of research. In these areas of strength relativistic (10 20 W/cm2), we can accelerate intense beams of electrons and high energy ions. In these schemes, the laser-matter interaction sources can produce intense, short X-ray, and γ neutrons, which suggests promising applications in the medical field, particularly for the treatment of tumors.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 27, 2010 - 9:59:17 AM
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  • HAL Id : pastel-00001025, version 1


Virginie Nagels-Silvert. Spectroscopie X de plasmas hors équilibre thermodynamique.. Optique [physics.optics]. Ecole Polytechnique X, 2004. Français. ⟨pastel-00001025⟩



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