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Ex ante assement of varietal innovations in winter pea (Pisum sativum L.): Modelling approach at the plot and farm scales

Abstract : In France, areas sown in pea have been significantly decreasing since 1993. This phenomenon is mainly due to the greatly yield variability of spring pea varieties (90% of pea areas), consequences of numerous limiting factors such as compacted soil structure because of high soil water content at sowing and hydric and thermic stress during yield elaboration. New winter pea cultivars - more reactive to photoperiod and with a longer duration of frost resistant - are nowadays under selection to revive the interest of this crop. These new cultivars can be sown since the beginning of October, which should contribute to decrease both the risk of both soil compaction at sowing and, hydric and thermic stress at the end of the growth cycle. A priori, these two characteristics are should favour yield stability. However, the beginning of autumn is a busy period in farms: these new cultivars should thus not be sown in optimal conditions, without expression of the two previous advantages. Moreover, the modification of sowing period, due to the use of these new winter pea cultivars, should have consequences on nitrogen balance and water consumption of the crop. The global aim of this work was to develop a methodology to assess the agronomic and environmental interests of these new winter pea cultivars before marketing, and to determine the characteristic it should combine to guarantee these advantages. Three stages were conducted. Firstly, four experiments (2 years and 2 sites) were carried out to determine the effects of soil structure, sowing period and cultivar on growth (aerial and root) of a pea crop. Secondly, the results obtained - completed with other data bases - were used to complete and assess a dynamic pea crop model, which predicts yield, grain protein content, part of nitrogen derived from fixation, nitrogen balance and water consumption at the plot scale. Thirdly, this model was used to assess different potential candidate cultivars. In this last stage, the model was coupled with two main models. The first one was a model of work organisation at farm scale to determine the possible sowing periods for pea cultivars, considering the problems of tasks' competition in autumn. The second one was a model simulating soil structure evolution according to the soil water content to determine the risk of soil compaction under pea and the consequences on the yield. This work increased the knowledge on root system development for different sowing and soil structure conditions. A crop model for spring and winter cultivars and sowing period, which takes into account the variability of nitrogen availability and soil structure, is usable. Finally, the combined used of different models showed that the results of the assessments of potential cultivars were different depending on whether constraints at farm scale were taken into account or not. The whole work proposes to breeders potential cultivars that present agronomic and environmental interests in farm.
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https://pastel.archives-ouvertes.fr/pastel-00001932
Contributor : Ecole Agroparistech <>
Submitted on : Thursday, September 28, 2006 - 8:00:00 AM
Last modification on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 10:54:38 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, September 30, 2010 - 7:47:07 PM

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  • HAL Id : pastel-00001932, version 1

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Aurélie Vocanson. Ex ante assement of varietal innovations in winter pea (Pisum sativum L.): Modelling approach at the plot and farm scales. Sciences of the Universe [physics]. INAPG (AgroParisTech), 2006. English. ⟨NNT : 2006INAPP0002⟩. ⟨pastel-00001932⟩

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