B. Dans-un, Superposition des figures d'atténuation, p.86

L. Dans-le, ´ evénements ? simuléssimulés`simulésà 100 et 500 MeV, p.92

C. .. Ebl-et-le, Emission d'´ electrons par production de paires pour l, p.141

C. Ebl-et-le, Spectre d'´ emission inverse-Compton pour l, p.145

.. -compton, Pertes d'´ energie moyennes d'unélectronunélectron par inverse, p.146

A. Fonctions-log-normales and .. , 165 178 TABLE DES FIGURES Liste des tableaux 1.1 Performances de COS, p.16

L. Des and . Bibliographie, Space engineering testing, 2002.

F. A. Aharonian, P. S. Coppi, and H. J. Völk, Very high energy gamma rays from active galactic nuclei: Cascading on the cosmic background radiation fields and the formation of pair halos, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.423, pp.5-8, 1994.
DOI : 10.1086/187222

F. Aharonian, A low level of extragalactic background light as revealed by ??-rays from blazars, Nature, vol.591, issue.7087, pp.1018-1021, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nature04680

F. Aharonian, Evidence for VHE ??-ray emission from the distant BL Lac PG???1553+113, Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol.448, issue.2, pp.19-23, 2006.
DOI : 10.1051/0004-6361:200600010

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00025548

A. Rotondi and P. Montagna, Fast calculation of vavilov distribution. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, pp.215-224, 1990.

W. Atwood, Analysis group presentation, 2005.

W. B. Atwood, Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST) applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, pp.302-307, 1994.

B. Giebels, GLAST and Very High Energy astrophysics, Towards a Network of Atmospheric Cherenkov Detectors VII, pp.401-414, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00127352

D. Bédérède, E. Bougamont, P. Bourgeois, F. X. Gentit, Y. Piret et al., Performances of the CsI(Tl) detector element of the GLAST calorimeter. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, pp.15-18, 2004.

K. Bennett, COS-B: The highlights, Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements, vol.14, issue.2, p.23, 1975.
DOI : 10.1016/0920-5632(90)90362-X

H. Bichsel and R. P. Saxon, Comparison of calculational methods for stragging in thin absorbers, Phys. Rev. A, vol.11, issue.4, pp.1285-1296, 1963.

H. Bichsel, D. E. Groom, and S. R. Klein, Passage of particles through matter, chapter 23 The Review of Particle Physics, 2005.

J. B. Birks, The Specific Fluorescence of Anthracene and Other Organic Materials, Physical Review, vol.84, issue.2, pp.364-365, 1951.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.84.364.2

G. R. Blumenthal, R. J. Gould, and . Bremsstrahlung, Bremsstrahlung, Synchrotron Radiation, and Compton Scattering of High-Energy Electrons Traversing Dilute Gases, Reviews of Modern Physics, vol.42, issue.2, pp.237-271, 1970.
DOI : 10.1103/RevModPhys.42.237

G. For, . Glast-collaboration, and . Bogaert, Gamma Ray Large Array Space Telescope, calorimeter crystals, 7th international conference on advanced technology and particle physics, 2001.

S. Bouvier, The silicon strip detector for STAR. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, pp.27-32, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00024285

J. Bregeon, ContributionàContribution`Contributionà l'´ etalonage enénergieenénergie du calorimètre du GLAST-LAT et qualification des modèles de cascades hadroniques disponibles sous GEANT4, 2005.

R. Bright, Lat power supply status. Lat project document change notice, GLAST Collaboration, 2005.

E. Brion, H. Manseri, and C. Collaboration, CELESTE Energy Scale and Blazar Observations, AIP Conference Proceedings, pp.651-656, 2005.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1878478

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00012945

T. Burnett, LAT effective area and point spread function, 2005.

T. Burnett and G. Psf, A simple functional representation for the, 2005.

G. P. Garmire, G. W. Clarck, and W. L. Kraushaar, Observation of high-energy cosmic gamma rays, Astrophysical Journal, vol.153, issue.3, pp.203-207, 1968.

C. Collaboration, The performance of the CMS tracking, Nuclear Physics B Proceedings Supplements, vol.150, pp.124-127, 2006.

P. S. Coppi and R. D. Blandford, Reaction rates and energy distributions for elementary processes in relativistic pair plasmas, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.245, pp.453-507, 1990.

L. Costamante, F. Aharonian, D. Horns, and G. Ghisellini, Constraining the cosmic background light with four BL Lac TeV spectra, New Astronomy Reviews, vol.48, issue.5-6, pp.469-472, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.newar.2003.12.003

Z. G. Dai and T. Lu, Spectrum and Duration of Delayed MeV???GeV Emission of Gamma???Ray Bursts in Cosmic Background Radiation Fields, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.580, issue.2, pp.1013-1016, 2002.
DOI : 10.1086/343848

Z. G. Dai, B. Zhang, L. J. Gou, P. Mészáros, and E. Waxman, G[CLC]e[/CLC]V Emission from T[CLC]e[/CLC]V Blazars and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.580, issue.1, pp.7-10, 2002.
DOI : 10.1086/345494

A. Dar and A. De-rújula, Magnetic field in galaxies, galaxy clusters, and intergalactic space, Physical Review D, vol.72, issue.12, p.123002, 2005.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevD.72.123002

H. Dole, The Cosmic Infrared Backgroud Resolved by Spitzer. Contributions of Mid-infrared Galaxies to the Far-infrared Background, Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol.446, 2006.

E. Dweck and R. G. Arendt, A Tentative Detection of the Cosmic Infrared Background at 3.5 ??[CLC]m[/CLC] from [ITAL]COBE[/ITAL]/DIRBE Observations, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.508, issue.1, pp.9-12, 1998.
DOI : 10.1086/311714

E. Dwek, R. G. Arendt, and F. Krennrich, The Near???Infrared Background: Interplanetary Dust or Primordial Stars?, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.635, issue.2, pp.784-794, 2005.
DOI : 10.1086/497569

E. Dwek, F. Krennrich, and R. G. Arendt, Is There an Imprint of Primordial Stars in the TeV ?????Ray Spectrum of Blazars?, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.634, issue.1, pp.155-160, 2005.
DOI : 10.1086/462400

E. Longo and I. Sestili, Monte Carlo calculation of photon-initiated electromagnetic showers in lead glass. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, 1975.

. Ferreira, Environmental tests of the GLAST Validation Module Calorimeter. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, pp.323-329, 2004.

D. Bastieri, Using the photons from the Crab Nebula seen by GLAST to calibrate MAGIC and the imaging air Cherenkov telescopes, Astroparticle Physics, vol.23, issue.6, pp.572-576, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2005.05.002

J. Kremer, Measurements of Ground-Level Muons at Two Geomagnetic Locations, Physical Review Letters, vol.83, issue.21, pp.4241-4244, 1999.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.4241

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00018940

M. Brigida, GLAST LAT tracker signal simulation and trigger timing study, Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements, vol.150, pp.66-69, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2005.02.106

M. Pârlog, Response of CsI(Tl) scintillators over a large range in energy et atomic number of ions. Part II : calibration and identification in the INDRA array. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, pp.693-706, 2002.

P. V. Sokolsky, Cosmic rays, chapter 24. The Review of Particle Physics, 2005.

S. Bergenius, Radiation hardness tests for CsI(Tl) crystals for the GLAST electromagnetic calorimeter, 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 2003.

C. W. Fabjan and G. Fabiola, Calorimetry for Particle Physis, Reviews of Modern Physics, vol.75, 2002.

E. Fiandrini, G. Esposito, B. Bertucci, B. Alpat, G. Ambrosi et al., Leptons with energy >200 MeV trapped near the South Atlantic Anomaly, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.69, issue.3, pp.12-13, 2003.
DOI : 10.1029/2003JA009844

C. E. Fichtel, Gamma ray Telescope, Mission Overview, Astrophysical Journal, vol.163, p.198, 1975.

R. J. Gould and G. P. Schréder, Pair Production in Photon-Photon Collisions, Physical Review, vol.155, issue.5, pp.1404-1407, 1967.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.155.1404

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/jpa-00215543

G. Grindhammer and S. Peters, The Parameterized Simulation of Electromagnetic Showers in Homogeneous and Sampling Calorimeters. ArXiv High Energy Physics - Experiment e-prints, 2000.

G. Grindhammer, M. Rudowicz, S. Peters, R. Gwin, and R. B. Murray, The fast simulation of electromagnetic andhadronic showers. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, A290 :469 Scintillation process in CsI(Tl). II. emission spectrum spectra et the possible role of self-trapped holes, Phys. Rev, vol.131, issue.2, pp.507-511, 1963.

R. C. Hartman, The Third EGRET Catalog of High???Energy Gamma???Ray Sources, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, vol.123, issue.1, pp.79-202, 1999.
DOI : 10.1086/313231

M. G. Hauser and E. Dwek, The Cosmic Infrared Background: Measurements and Implications, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol.39, issue.1, pp.249-307, 2001.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.astro.39.1.249

C. M. Hoffman, C. Sinnis, P. Fleury, and M. Punch, Gamma-ray astronomy at high energies, Reviews of Modern Physics, vol.71, issue.4, pp.897-936, 1999.
DOI : 10.1103/RevModPhys.71.897

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00005238

G. Johansson, S. Carius, and S. Bergenius, First Radiation Hardness Test of CDE CsI(Tl) Crystals, 2003.

W. N. Johnson and J. Ampe, Calorimeter electronics system -conceptual design, 2001.

R. P. Johnson and G. Lat-collaboration, The GLAST LAT Silicon Strip Tracker Converter, AIP Conference Proceedings, 2005.
DOI : 10.1063/1.2757448

B. Jones, A Search for Gamma-Ray Bursts, and the Application of Kalman Filters to Gamma-Ray Reconstruction, 1998.

F. Jones, Calculated Spectrum of Inverse-Compton-Scattered Photons, Physical Review, vol.167, issue.5, pp.1159-1169, 1967.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.167.1159

A. Kashlinsky, Cosmic infrared background and early galaxy evolution, Physics Reports, vol.409, issue.6, pp.361-438, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.physrep.2004.12.005

K. Katarzy´nskikatarzy´nski, G. Ghisellini, F. Tavecchio, J. Gracia, and L. Maraschi, Hard TeV spectra of blazars and the constraints to the infrared intergalactic background, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, vol.368, issue.1, pp.52-56, 2006.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2006.00156.x

P. P. Kronberg, Extragalactic magnetic fields, Reports on Progress in Physics, vol.57, issue.4, pp.325-382, 1994.
DOI : 10.1088/0034-4885/57/4/001

G. Lagache, H. Dole, and J. Puget, Modelling infrared galaxy evolution using a phenomenological approach, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.338, issue.3, pp.555-571, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.05971.x

L. Floc-'h and E. , Infrared Luminosity Functions from the Chandra Deep Field-South : The Spitzer View on the History of Dusty Star Formation at 0 z 1, Astrophysical Journal, vol.632, pp.169-190, 2005.

B. Lewetowski, The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, pp.303-307, 2002.

B. Lott, Response of the GLAST LAT calorimeter to relativistic heavy ions. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, pp.395-404, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00026029

M. Lemoine, Selection and 3D-reconstruction of gamma-ray-induced air showers with H, AIP Conf. Proc. 745 : High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy, p.697, 2005.

M. Nordby and T. Leisgang, Lat environmental specification, 2004.

C. Masterson, Observations of the Crab nebula with H, AIP Conf. Proc. 745 : High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy, pp.617-621, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00107167

I. Matute, Active galactic nuclei in the mid-IR, Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol.451, issue.2, pp.443-456, 2006.
DOI : 10.1051/0004-6361:20053710

M. V. Medvedev, L. O. Silva, and M. Kamionkowski, Cluster Magnetic Fields from Large-Scale Structure and Galaxy Cluster Shocks, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.642, issue.1, pp.1-4, 2006.
DOI : 10.1086/504470

URL : http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0512079

G. Mohanty, S. Biller, D. A. Carter-lewis, D. J. Fegan, A. M. Hillas et al., Measurement of TeV gamma-ray spectra with the Cherenkov imaging technique, Astroparticle Physics, vol.9, issue.1, pp.15-43, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0927-6505(98)00005-X

A. Neronov and D. Semikoz, Measurement of extragalactic magnetic fields by TeV gamma ray telescopes. ArXiv Astrophysics e-prints, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00128003

S. P. Oh, Probing High???Redshift Radiation Fields with Gamma???Ray Absorption, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.553, issue.1, pp.25-32, 2001.
DOI : 10.1086/320641

H. V. Peiris, ) Observations: Implications For Inflation, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, vol.148, issue.1, pp.213-231, 2003.
DOI : 10.1086/377228

L. Peterson and J. R. Winckler, -Ray Burst from a Solar Flare, Physical Review Letters, vol.1, issue.6, pp.205-206, 1958.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.1.205

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/jpa-00212417

D. Petry, The Earth???s Gamma-ray Albedo as observed by EGRET, AIP Conference Proceedings, pp.709-714, 2005.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1878488

B. F. Phillips and G. Bogaert, Specification for the calorimeter pin photodiode assembly (flight units) Technical report, Laboratoire Leprince Ringuet -Ecole polytechnique and CEA, 2001.

R. Plaga, Detecting intergalactic magnetic fields using time delays in pulses of ??-rays, Nature, vol.374, issue.6521, p.430, 1995.
DOI : 10.1038/374430a0

J. Primack, Probing Galaxy Formation with Gamma Rays, COSPAR, Plenary Meeting, 2002.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1370813

URL : http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0011475

J. R. Primack, J. S. Bullock, R. S. Somerville, and D. Macminn, Probing galaxy formation with TeV gamma ray absorption, Astroparticle Physics, vol.11, issue.1-2, pp.93-102, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0927-6505(99)00031-6

URL : http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9812399

R. J. Protheroe, R. J. Protheroe, and T. Stanev, Effect of electron-photon cascading on the observed energy spectra of extragalactic sources of ultra-high-energy ??-rays, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.221, issue.4, pp.769-788191, 1986.
DOI : 10.1093/mnras/221.4.769

S. Ritz, Lat coordinate system, 2000.

F. W. Stecker, M. A. Malkan, and S. T. Scully, Intergalactic photon spectra from the far IR to the UV Lyman limit for 0 < z < 6 and the optical depth of the universe to high energy gamma-rays. ArXiv Astrophysics e-prints, 2005.

M. Strickman, . Glast, and . Lat, Calorimeter Calibration Software calibGenCAL v3 Description, 2005.

R. Terrier, Calorimetrie et Methodes d'Analyse Spectrale en Astronomie Gamma Spatiale, Physique Corpusculaire et Cosmologie, 2002.

Y. Tsay, Pair production and bremstrahlung of charged leptons. Review of Modern Physics, pp.815-851, 1974.

J. P. Vallée, Cosmic magnetic fields ??? as observed in the Universe, in galactic dynamos, and in the Milky Way, New Astronomy Reviews, vol.48, issue.10, pp.763-841, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.newar.2004.03.017

N. Virmani and P. Bourgeois, Specification for the CAL Flight Dual PIN Photodiode, 2003.

A. Von-kienlin, The GLAST burst monitor, UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, 2004.
DOI : 10.1117/12.552913

W. Benbow, The status and performance of H, AIP Conf. Proc. 745 : High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy, p.611, 2005.

L. M. Widrow, Origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, Reviews of Modern Physics, vol.74, issue.3, pp.775-823, 2002.
DOI : 10.1103/RevModPhys.74.775

R. Wigmans and M. T. Zeyrek, On the differences between calorimetric detection of electrons and photons. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, pp.385-398, 2002.

E. L. Wright, DIRBE minus 2MASS: Confirming the Cosmic Infrared Background at 2.2 Microns, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.553, issue.2, pp.538-544, 2001.
DOI : 10.1086/320942

A. A. Zdziarski, Saturated pair-photon cascades on isotropic background photons, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.335, pp.786-802, 1988.
DOI : 10.1086/166967