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L'Hydrogène électrolytique comme moyen de stockage d'électricité pour systèmes photovoltaïques isolés

Abstract : Stand alone systems supplied only by a photovoltaic generator need an energy storage unit to be fully self-sufficient. Lead acid batteries are commonly used to store energy because of their low cost, despite several operational constraints. A hydrogen-based energy storage unit (HESU) could be another candidate, including an electrolyser, a fuel cell and a hydrogen tank. However many efforts still need to be carried out for this technology to reach an industrial stage. In particular, market outlets must be clearly identified. The study of small stationary applications (few kW) is performed by numerical simulations. A simulator is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. It is mainly composed of a photovoltaic field and a storage unit (lead acid batteries, HESU, or hybrid storage HESU/batteries). The system component sizing is achieved in order to ensure the complete system autonomy over a whole year of operation. The simulator is tested with 160 load profiles (1 kW as a yearly mean value) and three locations (Algeria, France and Norway). Two coefficients are set in order to quantify the correlation between the power consumption of the end user and the renewable resource availability at both daily and yearly scales. Among the tested cases, a limit value of the yearly correlation coefficient came out, enabling to recommend the use of the most adapted storage to a considered case.There are cases for which using HESU instead of lead acid batteries can increase the system efficiency, decrease the size of the photovoltaic field and improve the exploitation of the renewable resource. In addition, hybridization of HESU with batteries always leads to system enhancements regarding its sizing and performance, with an efficiency increase by 10 to 40 % depending on the considered location. The good agreement between the simulation data and field data gathered on real systems enabled the validation of the models used in this study.
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Submitted on : Monday, June 4, 2007 - 8:00:00 AM
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  • HAL Id : pastel-00002332, version 1

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Julien Labbé. L'Hydrogène électrolytique comme moyen de stockage d'électricité pour systèmes photovoltaïques isolés. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2006. Français. ⟨NNT : 2006ENMP1434⟩. ⟨pastel-00002332⟩

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