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Gyrolaser à état solide. Application des lasers à atomes à la gyrométrie.

Abstract : The laser gyro is a sensor of rotation used in most of inertial guidance systems. In its usual form, it consists of a ring laser cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon pumped by high voltage electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, so naturally it ensures stable bidirectional operation necessary for measuring rotation, is however the main limitation of industrial laser gyro current cost, dependability and durability. We study in this paper can substitute gaseous gain medium solid medium (Nd: YAG diode pumped). This is why an experimental and theoretical study of different regimes of the ring laser solid state. It is shown that the stability of bidirectional system can be guaranteed by a feedback loop cons acting on the states of polarization to create differential losses proportional to the difference in intensity between the counterrotating modes. This technique allows obtaining a solid-state laser gyro, whose frequency response is disturbed by the coupling between modes. Several solutions, optical and mechanical, to improve the quality of the frequency response are successively studied. There arises also the question of a possible equivalent of the atomic laser gyro, highlighting the similarities between the physics of solid-state laser gyro that some matter wave devices. An original model of one-dimensional description of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a toroidal trap in rotation in the case of a strong transverse confinement is presented. Some possible applications of this theoretical model are finally discussed. This work has resulted in 9 patents filed in France and abroad, and several scientific publications, including one in the journal Physical Review Letters. They have also led to the realization of a prototype industrial solid state laser gyro, currently under investigation and characterization by Thales Aerospace Division. Finally, they were crowned by the Thesis Award of the Polytechnic in 2007 and by the Technological Innovation Award Air and Space 2007.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 28, 2010 - 10:17:22 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, September 16, 2020 - 5:37:35 PM
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  • HAL Id : pastel-00002959, version 1



Sylvain Schwartz. Gyrolaser à état solide. Application des lasers à atomes à la gyrométrie.. Physique [physics]. Ecole Polytechnique X, 2006. Français. ⟨pastel-00002959⟩



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