N. Ahmad and R. L. Jones, Occurence of aluminous lateritic soils (bauxites) in the Bahamas and Cayman islands, Economic Geology, pp.30-719, 1969.

N. Ahmad, R. L. Jones, and A. H. Beavers, Genesis, mineralogy and related properties of West Indian soils, 1 Bauxite soils of Jamaïca, Proceedings of the Soil Science Society of America, pp.719-722, 1966.

F. Aumento and B. M. Gunn, Geology of the Bermuda seamount. Unpublished, available from World Wide Web http, 1974.

A. Avila, I. Queralt-mitjans, and M. Alarcon, Mineralogical composition of African dust delivered by red rains over northeastern Spain, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.19, issue.D12, pp.21977-21996, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/97JD00485

M. M. Ball, Carbonate sand bodies of Florida and the Bahamas, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, vol.37, pp.556-591, 1967.

R. I. Barnhisel and P. M. Bertsch, Chlorites and hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite and smectite Minerals in soil environments, pp.729-779, 1989.

R. C. Bathurst, Carbonate sediments and their diagenesis (second edition). Amsterdam, Development in sedimentology, p.658, 1976.

D. K. Beach and R. N. Ginsburg, Facies succession of Pliocene-Pleistocene carbonates, Northwestern Great Bahama Bank, pp.64-1634, 1980.

C. Betzler, J. J. Reijmer, K. Bernet, G. P. Eberli, and F. S. Anselmetti, Sedimentary patterns and geometries of the Bahamian outer carbonate ramp (Miocene-Lower Pliocene, Great Bahama Bank), Sedimentology, vol.46, issue.6, pp.46-1127, 1999.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-3091.1999.00268.x

B. Bini and S. Menchetti, Kutnohorite from Levane, Upper Valdarno (Italy). Periodico de Mineralogia, pp.54-61, 1985.

P. W. Birkeland, Soils and geomorphology, 1984.

P. E. Biscaye, Mineralogy and Sedimentation of Recent Deep-Sea Clay in the Atlantic Ocean and Adjacent Seas and Oceans, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.76, issue.7, pp.76-803, 1965.
DOI : 10.1130/0016-7606(1965)76[803:MASORD]2.0.CO;2

G. Blackburn and R. M. Taylor, Limestones and Red Soils of Bermuda, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.80, issue.8, pp.1595-1597, 1969.
DOI : 10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1595:LARSOB]2.0.CO;2

G. Blackburn and R. M. Taylor, Limestones and Red Soils of Bermuda: Reply, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.81, issue.8, pp.81-2525, 1970.
DOI : 10.1130/0016-7606(1970)81[2525:LARSOB]2.0.CO;2

A. Blanco, F. De-tomasi, E. Filippo, D. Manno, M. R. Perrone et al., Characterization of African dust over southern Italy, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, issue.3, pp.2147-2159, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00301235

M. R. Boardman, R. F. Mccartney, and M. R. Eaton, Bahamian paleosols: origin, relation to paleoclimate, and stratigraphic significance Terrestrial and shallow marine geology of the Bahamas and Bermuda, pp.300-333, 1995.

J. H. Bretz, BERMUDA: A PARTIALLY DROWNED, LATE MATURE, PLEISTOCENE KARST, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.71, issue.12, pp.71-1729, 1960.
DOI : 10.1130/0016-7606(1960)71[1729:BAPDLM]2.0.CO;2

O. Bricker and F. T. Mackenzie, Limestones and Red Soils of Bermuda: Discussion, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.81, issue.8, pp.81-2523, 1970.
DOI : 10.1130/0016-7606(1970)81[2523:LARSOB]2.0.CO;2

O. Bricker and J. M. Prospero, Airbone dust on the Bermuda islands and Barbados [Abs, EOS (Transaction, pp.50-176, 1969.

A. Bücher and C. Lucas, Aeolian intercontinental sedimentation, Saharan dust and geology. Bulletin du Centre de Recherches et d'Exploration-Elf Aquitaine, pp.151-165, 1984.

B. Buck, J. Merkler, D. Mrozek, S. Harrison, B. Lato et al., Spheroidal dolomite, Mg-Calcite, and Mg-Kutnohorite, Death Valley Ca, USA: implications for genesis and paleoenvironmental interpretations (Poster), The 12th international conference on soil micromorphology, pp.39-123, 2005.

A. Bukowsky, Kuttenberger manganmineralien. Anz. Der III Congr, Bohm. Naturforsch, und Arzte, b. Min, vol.2, pp.293-238, 1901.

S. Calvert, E. Pedersen, T. , and F. , Sedimentary geochemistry of manganese; implications for the environment of formation of manganiferous black shales, Economic Geology, vol.91, issue.1, pp.91-127, 1996.
DOI : 10.2113/gsecongeo.91.1.36

G. Cancian and F. Princivalle, Kutnahorite from Caverna Pocala soil (Trieste karst, Italy). Periodico de mineralogia, pp.60-75, 1991.

M. V. Caputo, Eolian structures and textures in oolitic-skeletal calcarenites from the Quaternary of San Salvador Island, Bahamas; a new perpective on eolian limestones Mississippian oolites and modern analogs, pp.35-243, 1993.

S. Caquineau, Les sources des aérosols sahariens transportés au-dessus de l'Atlantique tropical Nord: localisation et caractéristiques minéralogiques, Thèse de 3 ème cycle, p.pp, 1997.

S. Caquineau, A. Gaudichet, L. Gomes, and M. Legrand, Mineralogy of Saharan dust transported over northwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean in relation to source regions, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.45, issue.3???4, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JD000247

S. Caquineau, A. Gaudichet, L. Gomes, M. C. Magontheir, and B. Chatenet, Saharan dust: Clay ratio as a relevant tracer to assess the origin of soil-derived aerosols, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.18, issue.7, pp.25-983, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/98GL00569

J. L. Carew and J. E. Mylroie, The Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphy of San Salvador island, Bahamas, with reference to marine and terrestrial lithofacies at French Bay Pleistocene and Holocene carbonate environments on, field station, pp.6011-6027, 1985.

J. L. Carew, J. E. Mylroie, and P. Kindler, Discussion of: Hearty, P New perspectives on the Bahamian geology, Journal of Coastal Research Journal of Coastal Research, vol.9, issue.10, pp.577-594, 1993.

J. L. Carew and J. E. Mylroie, Depositional model and stratigraphy for the quaternary geology of the Bahama islands Terrestrial and shallow marine geology of the Bahamas and Bermuda, pp.5-32, 1995.

J. L. Carew, J. E. Mylroie, P. J. Hearty, and P. Kindler, Reply-straw men, glass houses, apples and oranges: a response to Carew and Mylroie's comment on Hearty and Kindler (1993), Journal of Coastal Research Journal of Coastal Research, vol.10, issue.4 11, pp.1095-1105, 1994.

J. L. Carew and J. E. Mylroie, Quaternary tectonic stability of the Bahamian archipelago: evidence from fossil coral reefs and flank margin caves, Quaternary Science Reviews, vol.14, issue.2, pp.14-145, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0277-3791(94)00108-N

J. L. Carew and J. E. Mylroie, Geology of the Bahamas Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate islands, pp.91-139, 1997.

J. L. Carew, J. E. Mylroie, and N. Sealey, Field guide to sites of geological interest, Western New Providence island, Bahamas. The 6 th Symposium on the geology of the Bahamas: field trip guidebook, field station, pp.1-23, 1992.

S. Carey and H. Sigurdsson, Grain size of Miocene volcanic ash layers from Sites 998, 999, and 1000: implications for source areas and dispersal, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, pp.165-101, 2000.
DOI : 10.2973/odp.proc.sr.165.002.2000

S. Carey and H. Sigurdsson, The roseau ash: Deep-sea tephra deposits from a major eruption on Dominica, lesser antilles arc, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.7, issue.1-2, pp.67-86, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/0377-0273(80)90020-7

T. N. Carlson and J. M. Prospero, The Large-Scale Movement of Saharan Air Outbreaks over the Northern Equatorial Atlantic, Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol.11, issue.2, pp.283-297, 1972.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0450(1972)011<0283:TLSMOS>2.0.CO;2

K. W. Carman, Shallow-water foraminifera of Bermuda, 1933.

H. Chamley, Recherches sur la sedimentation argileuse en Méditerranée, p.35, 1971.

H. Chamley, Clay sedimentology, 1989.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-85916-8

J. H. Chen, H. A. Curran, B. White, and G. J. Wasserburg, Precise chronology of the last interglacial period: 234U-230Th data from fossil coral reefs in the Bahamas, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.103, issue.1, pp.82-97, 1991.
DOI : 10.1130/0016-7606(1991)103<0082:PCOTLI>2.3.CO;2

R. Chester, H. Elderfield, J. J. Griffin, L. R. Johnson, and R. C. Padgham, Eolian dust along the eastern margins of the Atlantic Ocean, Marine Geology, vol.13, issue.2, pp.13-91, 1972.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-3227(72)90048-5

I. Chiapello, Les aérosols atmosphériques au-dessus de l'Atlantique Nord tropical : approche physico-chimique et météorologique. Evaluation de la contribution des différentes espèces à l'épaisseur optique en aérosol, Thèse de 3 ème cycle, p.pp, 1996.

I. Chiapello, G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, P. Bousquet, F. Dulac et al., Origins of African dust transported over the North-Eastern Tropical Atlantic, Journal of Geophysical Research, issue.102, pp.13701-13709, 1997.

F. H. Chung, Quantitative interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns of mixtures. III. Simultaneous determination of a det of reference intensities, Journal of Applied Crystallography, issue.8, pp.17-19, 1975.

J. B. Comer and T. A. Jackson, Miocene bentonites in the White Limestone Group The mid-Cainozoic White Limestone Group of Jamaica, Cainozoic Research, issue.3, pp.1-231, 2004.

G. Coudé-gaussen, Les poussières sahariennes, 1991.

G. Coudé-gaussen and P. Blanc, Présence de grains éolinisés de palygorskite dans les poussières actuelles et les sédiments d'origine désertique, pp.571-579, 1985.

G. Coudé-gaussen, P. Rognon, G. Bergametti, L. Gomes, B. Strauss et al., Saharan dust over Fuerteventura island (Canaries): chemical and mineralogical charateristics, air mass trajectories and probable sources, Journal of Geophysical Research, pp.92-9753, 1987.

G. A. Almeida, A model for Saharan dust transport, Journal of Applied Meteorology, pp.903-916, 1986.

C. Darwin, An account of the Fine Dust which often falls on Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean., Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, vol.2, issue.1-2, pp.26-30, 1846.
DOI : 10.1144/GSL.JGS.1846.002.01-02.09

A. C. Delaney, D. W. Parkin, J. J. Griffin, E. D. Goldberg, and B. E. Reimann, Airborne dust collected at Barbados, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.31, issue.5, pp.31-885, 1967.
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-7037(67)80037-1

P. Demenocal, W. Ruddiman, and E. Pokras, Influences of High- and Low-Latitude Processes on African Terrestrial Climate: Pleistocene Eolian Records from Equatorial Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 663, Paleoceanography, vol.45, issue.2, pp.209-242, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/93PA02688

P. Demenocal, Plio-Pleistocene African Climate, Science, vol.270, issue.5233, pp.53-59, 1995.
DOI : 10.1126/science.270.5233.53

R. S. Detrick, R. P. Von-herzen, B. Parsons, D. Sandwell, and M. Dougherty, Heat flow observations on the Bermuda Rise and thermal models of midplate swells, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.34, issue.B3, pp.91-3701, 1986.
DOI : 10.1029/JB091iB03p03701

G. B. Dunbar, L. D. Keigwin, D. Rio, G. D. Acton, A. et al., A detailed characterization of Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles at site 1063 (Bermudarise), Proceedings of Ocean Drilling Program Scientific Results, pp.172-173, 2001.

M. R. Eaton, Origin of insoluble residues in a deep-dea sediment core from Northwest Providence Channel, 1986.

G. P. Eberli and R. N. Ginsburg, Segmentation and coalescence of Cenozoic carbonate platforms, northwestern Great Bahama Bank, Geology, vol.15, issue.1, pp.75-79, 1987.
DOI : 10.1130/0091-7613(1987)15<75:SACOCC>2.0.CO;2

R. A. Eggleton and J. F. Banfield, The alteration of granitic biotite to chlorite, American Mineralogist, vol.70, pp.902-910, 1985.

A. S. Endredy-de, Estimation of free iron oxydes in soils and clays by a photolithyc method, Clay Mineralogy Bulletin, pp.29-209, 1963.

P. Enos, Map surface sediment facies of the Florida-Bahama plateau, Map series, p.5, 1974.

V. Ersek, Analyse of common elements and oxydes in the paleosols of the Bahamas and of the Northern Mariana islands, p.pp, 2004.

R. Flicotaux, Genèse des phosphates alumineux du Sénégal occidental: étapes et guides de l'altération, Thèse de 3 ème cycle, p.pp, 1982.

A. M. Foos, Aluminous lateritic soils, Eleuthera, Bahamas; a modern analog to carbonate, paleosols, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, pp.61-340, 1991.

A. M. Foos and R. J. Bain, Mineralogy, chemistry, and petrography of soils, surface crusts, and soil stones Terrestrial and shallow marine geology of the Bahamas and Bermuda, pp.300-223, 1995.

A. Foucault and F. Mélières, Palaeoclimatic cyclicity in central Mediterranean Pliocene sediments: the mineralogical signal, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol.158, issue.3-4, pp.311-323, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-0182(00)00056-0

R. François, M. P. Bacon, and D. O. Suman, Thorium 230 profiling in deep-sea sediments: High-resolution records of flux and dissolution of carbonate in the equatorial Atlantic during the last 24,000 years, Paleoceanography, vol.34, issue.Suplemento, pp.761-787, 1990.
DOI : 10.1029/PA005i005p00761

P. Garrett and S. J. Gould, Geology of New Providence island, Bahamas. Geological Society of America Bulletin, pp.95-209, 1984.

R. A. Gees, The age of the Bermuda Seamount. Maritime sedimentology, pp.56-57, 1969.

R. N. Ginsburg, The Bahamas drilling project: background and acquisition of cores and logs subsurface geology of a prograding carbonate platform margin, Great Bahama Bank. Results of the Bahamas Drilling Project, Society for Sedimentary Geology Special Publication, pp.70-73, 2001.

R. A. Glaccum and J. M. Prospero, Saharan aerosols over the tropical North Atlantic ??? Mineralogy, Marine Geology, vol.37, issue.3-4, pp.295-321, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-3227(80)90107-3

A. Goudie and N. Middleton, Saharan dust storms: nature and consequences, Earth-Science Reviews, vol.56, issue.1-4, pp.179-204, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0012-8252(01)00067-8

S. J. Gould, An evolutionary microcosm: Pleistocene and recent history of the land snail (Poecilozonites) in Bermuda, Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, pp.138-407, 1969.

F. Grousset, M. Parra, A. Bory, P. Martinez, P. Bertrand et al., SAHARAN WIND REGIMES TRACED BY THE Sr???Nd ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF SUBTROPICAL ATLANTIC SEDIMENTS: LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM vs TODAY, Quaternary Science Reviews, vol.17, issue.4-5, pp.17-395, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0277-3791(97)00048-6

F. E. Grousset and P. E. Biscaye, Tracing dust sources and transport patterns using Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes, Chemical Geology, vol.222, issue.3-4, pp.222-149, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2005.05.006

F. E. Grousset, P. E. Biscaye, A. Zindler, J. Prospero, and R. Chester, Neodymium isotopes as tracers in marine sediments and aerosols: North Atlantic, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.87, issue.4, pp.367-378, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0012-821X(88)90001-5

R. B. Halley, P. M. Harris, and A. C. Hine, Bank margin Carbonate deposits environments, pp.33-463, 1983.

P. E. Hare and R. M. Mitterer, Non-protein amino acids in fossil shells. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book, pp.65-362, 1967.

P. E. Hare and R. M. Mitterer, Laboratory simulation of amino-acid diagenesis in fossils, pp.67-205, 1969.

R. S. Harmon, L. S. Land, R. M. Mitterer, P. Garrett, H. P. Schwarcz et al., Bermuda sea level during the last interglacial, Nature, vol.14, issue.5797, pp.289-481, 1981.
DOI : 10.1038/289481a0

R. S. Harmon, R. M. Mitterer, N. Kriausakul, L. S. Land, H. P. Schwarcz et al., U-series and amino-acid racemization geochronology of Bermuda: Implications for eustatic sea-level fluctuation over the past 250,000 years, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol.44, issue.1-2, pp.44-85, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-0182(83)90004-4

R. S. Harmon, H. P. Schwarcz, and D. C. Ford, Late Pleistocene Sea Level History of Bermuda, Quaternary Research, vol.9, issue.02, pp.205-218, 1978.
DOI : 10.5962/bhl.part.28921

G. H. Haug and R. Tiedemann, Effect of the formation of the isthmus of Panama on Atlantic ocean thermohaline circulation, Nature, pp.393-673, 1998.

G. H. Haug, R. Tiedemann, and L. D. Keigwin, How the isthmus of Panama puts ice in the Artic? Oceanus magazine, pp.42-43, 2004.

DOI : 10.1016/S0277-3791(98)00046-8

P. J. Hearty, Revision of the late Pleistocene stratigraphy of Bermuda, Sedimentary Geology, vol.153, issue.1-2, pp.1-21, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0037-0738(02)00261-0

P. J. Hearty, D. Kaufman, and S. , Whole-Rock Aminostratigraphy and Quaternary Sea-Level History of the Bahamas, Quaternary Research, vol.22, issue.02, pp.54-163, 2000.
DOI : 10.1006/qres.2000.2164

P. J. Hearty and P. Kindler, New perspectives on Bahamian geology, Journal of Coastal Research, issue.9, pp.577-594, 1993.

P. J. Hearty and P. Kindler, Straw men, glass houses, apples and oranges: a response to Carew and Mylroie's comment on Hearty and Kindler (1993), Journal of Coastal Research, issue.10, pp.1095-1105, 1994.

P. J. Hearty and P. Kindler, Sea-level highstand chronology from stable carbonate platforms (Bermuda and the Bahamas), Journal of Coastal Research, issue.11, pp.675-689, 1995.

P. J. Hearty, S. L. Olson, D. S. Kaufman, R. L. Edwards, and H. Cheng, Stratigraphy and geochronology of pitfall accumulations in caves and fissures, Bermuda, Quaternary Science Reviews, vol.23, issue.9-10, pp.1151-1171, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.09.008

P. J. Hearty, H. L. Vacher, and R. M. Mitterer, Aminostratigraphy and ages of Pleistocene limestones of Bermuda, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.104, issue.4, pp.471-480, 1992.
DOI : 10.1130/0016-7606(1992)104<0471:AAAOPL>2.3.CO;2

B. C. Heezen, M. Tharp, and M. Ewing, The Floors of the Oceans, p.65, 1959.
DOI : 10.1130/SPE65-p1

S. R. Herwitz, Stemflow influences on the formation of solution pipes in Bermuda eolianite, Geomorphology, vol.6, issue.3, pp.253-271, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0169-555X(93)90050-C

S. R. Herwitz and D. R. Muhs, Bermuda solution pipe soils; a geochemical evaluation of eolian parent materials Terrestrial and shallow marine geology of the Bahamas and Bermuda, pp.300-311, 1995.

S. R. Herwitz, D. R. Muhs, J. M. Prospero, S. Mahan, and B. Vaughn, Origin of Bermuda's clay-rich Quaternary paleosols and their paleoclimatic significance, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.271, issue.D18, pp.389-400, 1996.
DOI : 10.1029/96JD02333

R. L. Hooke and W. Schlager, Geomorphic evolution of the Tongue of the Ocean and the Providence Channels, Bahamas, Marine Geology, vol.35, issue.4, pp.35-343, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-3227(80)90125-5

H. Hüggenberg and H. Füchtbauer, Clay mineral and their diagenesis in carbonate-rich sediments (Leg 101, Sites 626 and 627, Proceeding of the Ocean Drilling Program Scientific result, pp.171-177, 1988.

R. B. Husar, J. M. Prospero, and L. L. Stowe, Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness operational product, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.7, issue.12, pp.16889-16909, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/96JD04009

J. Imbrie, J. D. Hays, D. G. Martinson, A. Mcintyre, A. C. Mix et al., The orbital theory of Pleistocene climate: support from a revised chronology of the marine 18O records Milankovitch and climate, pp.269-305, 1994.

N. P. James and P. E. Schenk, Field-guide to Pleistocene and modern carbonates of Bermuda, Bermuda Biological Station for Research Special publication, vol.72, p.25, 1983.

T. D. Jickells, S. Dorling, W. G. Deuser, T. M. Church, R. Arimoto et al., Air-borne dust fluxes to a deep water sediment trap in the Sargasso Sea, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.355, issue.12, pp.12-311, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/97GB03368

L. R. Johnson, Mineralogical dispersal patterns of North Atlantic deep-sea sediments with particular reference to eolian dusts, Marine Geology, vol.29, issue.1-4, pp.335-345, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-3227(79)90115-4

B. R. Jordan, Geochemical correlation, variation and petrogenesis of ignimbrites in Central America and associated Caribbean sea tephra layers, p.pp, 2004.

F. Juillot, G. Morin, P. Ildefonse, T. P. Trainor, M. Benedetti et al., Occurrence of Zn/Al hydrotalcite in smelter-impacted soils from northern France: Evidence from EXAFS spectroscopy and chemical extractions, American Mineralogist, vol.88, issue.4, pp.88-509, 2003.
DOI : 10.2138/am-2003-0405

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00085107

A. E. Kalu, The African dust plume: its characteristics and propagation across West Africa in winter Saharan dust: mobilization, transport, deposition, pp.95-118, 1979.

A. M. Karpoff, C. Destrigneville, D. Bartier, and P. Déjardin, Phyllosilicates and zeolite assemblages in the carbonate periplatform of the Great Bahama Bank: origin and relation to diagenetic processes (ODP Leg 166, Sites 1006 and 1007), Marine Geology, vol.185, issue.1-2, pp.185-55, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0025-3227(01)00290-0

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00709954

A. M. Karpoff, C. Destringneville, P. Stille, and . Soumis, Clinoptilolite as a tracer of the enhanced biogenic silica productivity in carbonate sediments: isotopic and thermodynamic evidences of an early diagenesis in Lower Miocene sequences (Bahamas periplatform

W. F. Keegan, The people who discovered Columbus: the prehistory of the Bahamas, 1992.

T. Keffer, D. G. Martinson, and B. H. Corliss, The Position of the Gulf Stream During Quaternary Glaciations, Science, vol.241, issue.4864, pp.241-440, 1988.
DOI : 10.1126/science.241.4864.440

D. V. Kent and F. M. Gradstein, A Jurassic to recent chronology The Western North Atlantic region: the geology of North America, pp.45-50, 1986.

C. M. Kievman, Match between late Pleistocene Great Bahama Bank and deep-sea oxygen isotope records of sea level, Geology, vol.26, issue.7, pp.635-638, 1998.
DOI : 10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0635:MBLPGB>2.3.CO;2

P. Kindler and P. J. Hearty, Pre-Sangamonian eolianites in the Bahamas? New evidence from Eleuthera Island, Marine Geology, vol.127, issue.1-4, pp.73-86, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-3227(95)00052-Z

P. Kindler and P. J. Hearty, Carbonate petrography as an indicator of climate and sea-level changes: new data from Bahamian Quaternary units, Sedimentology, vol.43, issue.2, pp.43-381, 1996.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-3091.1996.d01-11.x

P. Kindler and P. J. Hearty, Geology of the Bahamas: architecture of Bahamian islands Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate islands. Developments in sedimentology, pp.54-141, 1997.

P. Kindler, J. Reyss, C. Cazala, and V. Plagnes, Geochronological evidence for a composite reefal terrace of Middle and Late Pleistocene age in Great Inagua island, Bahamas. Sedimentary Geology, pp.194-141, 2007.

P. Kindler, A. Strasser, and C. Nawratil-de-bono, Pleistocene and Holocene carbonate environments, Eleuthera island, Bahamas. Field Guide, p.pp, 2004.

V. Kolla, P. E. Biscaye, and A. F. Hanley, Distribution of Quartz in Late Quaternary Atlantic Sediments in Relation to Climate, Quaternary Research, vol.233, issue.02, pp.261-277, 1979.
DOI : 10.1098/rspa.1974.0039

D. Kroon, J. J. Reijmer, and R. Rendle, Mid- to late-Quaternary variations in the oxygen isotope signature of Globigerinoides ruber at Site 1006 in the western subtropical Atlantic, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. College Station TX, pp.166-179, 2000.
DOI : 10.2973/odp.proc.sr.166.104.2000

J. E. Kutzbach, Monsoon climate of the Early Holocene, Science, issue.214, pp.59-61, 1981.

J. E. Kutzbach and P. J. Guetter, The influence of changing orbital parameters and surface boundary conditions on climate simulations for the past 18,000 years, Journal of Atmospheric Science, pp.43-1726, 1986.

L. S. Land and F. T. Mackenzie, Field guide to Bermuda geology, p.14, 1970.

L. S. Land, F. T. Mackenzie, and S. J. Gould, Pleistocene History of Bermuda, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.78, issue.8, pp.78-993, 1967.
DOI : 10.1130/0016-7606(1967)78[993:PHOB]2.0.CO;2

L. Farmer, G. Barber, D. Andrews, and J. , Provenance of Late Quaternary ice-proximal sediments in the North Atlantic: Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic evidence, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.209, issue.1-2, pp.209-227, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00068-2

H. Lange, Distribution of chlorite and kaolinite in eastern Atlantic sediments off North Africa, Sedimentology, vol.12, issue.3, pp.427-431, 1982.
DOI : 10.1038/293193a0

S. Leroy and L. Dupont, Development of vegetation and continental aridity in northwestern Africa during the Late Pliocene: the pollen record of ODP site 658, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol.109, issue.2-4, pp.295-316, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-0182(94)90181-3

J. Lucas, R. Flicoteaux, N. Yaacov, L. Prévot, and S. Yacoov, DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF PHOSPHORITE WEATHERING, pp.29-105, 1980.
DOI : 10.2110/pec.80.29.0041

F. Lutgens, K. Tarbucks, E. , J. Tasa, and D. , The atmosphere: an introduction to meteorology, p.pp, 2001.

J. Lynch-stieglitz, W. B. Curry, and N. Slowey, Weaker Gulf Stream in the Florida Straits during the last glacial maximum, Nature, pp.402-644, 1999.

F. T. Mackenzie, Bermuda Pleistocene eolianites and paleowinds, Sedimentology, issue.3, pp.52-64, 1964.

F. T. Mackenzie, Geometry of Bermuda Calcareous Dune Cross-Bedding, Science, vol.144, issue.3625, pp.1449-1450, 1964.
DOI : 10.1126/science.144.3625.1449

C. M. Manfrino and R. N. Ginsburg, Pliocene to Pleistocene deposition history of the upper platform margin Subsurface geology of a prograding carbonate platform margin, Great Bahama Bank: results of the Bahamas Drilling Project, pp.70-87, 2001.

R. F. Mccartney and M. R. Boardman, Bahamian paleosols; implications for stratigraphic correlation, Proceedings of the 3 rd symposium on the geology of the Bahamas, pp.99-107, 1986.

D. F. Mcneill, G. P. Eberli, B. H. Lidz, P. K. Swart, and J. A. Kenter, Chronostratigraphy of a prograded carbonate platform margin: a record of dynamic slope sedimentation, Western Great Bahama Bank Subsurface geology of a prograding carbonate platform margin, Great Bahama Bank: Results of the Bahamas Drilling Project, pp.70-101, 2001.

G. H. Mctainsh and P. H. Walker, Nature and distribution of Harmattan dust, Zeistschr fur Geomorph. N. F., v, vol.26, pp.417-435, 1982.

D. Meischner, R. Vollbrecht, and D. Wehmeyer, Pleistocene sea-level yo-yo recorded in stacked beaches, Bermuda South Shore Terrestrial and shallow marine geology of the Bahamas and Bermuda, pp.295-310, 1995.

A. A. Meyerhoff and C. W. Hatten, Bahamas Salient of North America, pp.58-1201, 1974.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-662-01141-6_31

T. Michaud, Géologie, stratigraphie et étude physico-chimique des paléosols de la région de North-Eleuthera (Bahamas) Diplôme d'études spérieures d'ingénieur-géologue, p.pp, 1999.

G. H. Miller and J. Brigham-grette, Amino Acid Geochronology: resolution and precision in carbonate fossils Applied aspects of quaternary geochronology, Quaternary International, issue.1, pp.111-128, 1989.

G. H. Miller and J. Mangerud, Aminostratigraphy of European marine interglacial deposits, Quaternary Science Reviews, vol.4, issue.4, pp.215-278, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0277-3791(85)90002-2

J. E. Mirecki, J. L. Carew, and J. E. Mylroie, Precision of amino acid enantiometric data from fossiliferous Late Quaternary units in San Salvador island, Proceedings of the 6 th Symposium on the Geology of the Bahama, pp.95-101, 1993.

J. P. Moberg, I. E. Esu, and W. B. Malgwi, Characteristics and constituent composition of Harmattan dust falling in Northern Nigeria, Geoderma, vol.48, issue.1-2, pp.48-73, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7061(91)90007-G

E. Molinaroli, S. Guerzoni, and G. Rampazzo, Contribution of Saharan dust to the Central Mediterranean Basin, pp.284-303, 1993.
DOI : 10.1130/SPE284-p303

D. R. Muhs, C. A. Bush, K. C. Stewart, T. R. Rowland, and R. Crittenden, Abstract, Quaternary Research, vol.52, issue.02, pp.33-157, 1990.
DOI : 10.1126/science.196.4295.1196

D. R. Muhs, R. Crittenden, J. N. Rosholt, C. A. Bush, and K. C. Stewart, Genesis of marine terrace soils, Barbados, West Indies; evidence from mineralogy and geochemistry. Earth Surface Process and landforms, pp.12-605, 1987.

D. R. Muhs, K. R. Simmons, and B. Steinke, Timing and warmth of the Last Interglacial period: new U-series evidence from Hawaii and Bermuda and a new fossil compilation for North America, Quaternary Science Reviews, vol.21, issue.12-13, pp.1355-1383, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00114-7

H. T. Mullins, N. A. Breen, J. Dolan, R. W. Wellner, J. L. Petruccione et al., Carbonate platforms along the southeast Bahamas-Hispaniola collision zone, Marine Geology, vol.105, issue.1-4, pp.105-169, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-3227(92)90188-N

H. T. Mullins and G. W. Lynts, Origin of the northwestern Bahama Platform: Review and reinterpretation, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.88, issue.10, pp.88-1461, 1977.
DOI : 10.1130/0016-7606(1977)88<1447:OOTNBP>2.0.CO;2

H. G. Multer and J. E. Hoffmeinster, Subaerial Laminated Crusts of the Florida Keys, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.79, issue.2, pp.79-183, 1968.
DOI : 10.1130/0016-7606(1968)79[183:SLCOTF]2.0.CO;2

H. A. Curran and B. White, Terrestrial and shallow marine geology of the Bahamas and Bermuda, pp.300-251

J. Natland, Occurrences of air-fall volcanic ash derived from the Lesser Antilles arc at Leg 78a Drill Sites Deep Sea Drilling Project Initial Reports, pp.78-369, 1984.

C. Nawratil-de-bono, Pétrographie, micromorphologie et minéralogie des paléosols pléistocènes d'Eleuthera, Bahamas: enseignements paléo-environnementaux, Thèse de 3 ème cycle non publiée, 2005.

J. O. Nriagu and P. B. Moore, Phosphate minerals, p.442, 1984.

C. B. Officer, M. Ewing, and P. C. Wuenschel, SEISMIC REFRACTION MEASUREMENTS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. PART IV: BERMUDA, BERMUDA RISE, AND NARES BASIN, Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.63, issue.8, pp.63-777, 1952.
DOI : 10.1130/0016-7606(1952)63[777:SRMITA]2.0.CO;2

H. Paquet, G. Coudé-gaussen, and P. Rognon, Etude minéralogique de poussières sahariennes le long d'un itinéraire entre 19° et 35° de latitude Nord, pp.25-257, 1984.

D. W. Parkin and N. J. Shackleton, Trade wind and temperature correlation down a deep-sea core of the Sahara Coast, Nature, pp.245-455, 1973.

M. Parmentier, Développement d'un module microbiologique dédié à la modélisation hydrobiogéochimique et application à la mobilité de l'arsenic, Thèse de 3 ème cycle, p.pp, 2006.

J. M. Peckenham, On the nature and origin of some paleogene melilitic pillowed lava, breccias, and intrusives from Bermuda, p.pp, 1981.

J. L. Peters, R. W. Murray, J. W. Sparks, D. S. Coleman, R. M. Leckie et al., Terrigenous matter and dispersed ash in sediment from the Caribbean Sea: results from Leg 165, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results, College Station, pp.165-115, 2000.
DOI : 10.2973/odp.proc.sr.165.003.2000

B. J. Pierson, Cyclic sedimentation, limestone diagenesis and dolomitization in Upper Cenozoic carbonates of the Southeastern Bahamas, 1982.

L. V. Pirsson, Geology of Bermuda Island; the igneous platform, American Journal of Science, vol.4, issue.225, pp.189-206, 1914.
DOI : 10.2475/ajs.s4-38.225.189

L. V. Pirsson, Geology of Bermuda Island; petrology of the lavas, American Journal of Science, vol.4, issue.226, pp.38-331, 1914.
DOI : 10.2475/ajs.s4-38.226.331

E. M. Pokras and A. C. Mix, Eolian Evidence for Spatial Variability of Late Quaternary Climates in Tropical Africa, Quaternary Research, vol.12, issue.02, pp.24-137, 1985.
DOI : 10.1038/272043a0

J. M. Prospero, Saharan dust transport over the North Atlantic ocean and Mediterranean; an overview The impact of desert dust across the Mediterranean, pp.133-152, 1996.

J. M. Prospero and T. N. Carlson, Vertical and areal distribution of Saharan dust over the western equatorial north Atlantic Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.1, issue.27, pp.77-5255, 1972.
DOI : 10.1029/JC077i027p05255

J. M. Prospero and R. T. Nees, Deposition rate of particulate and dissolved aluminum derived from saharan dust in precipitation at Miami, Florida, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.89, issue.D12, pp.92-14723, 1987.
DOI : 10.1029/JD092iD12p14723

K. Pye, Aeolian dust and dust deposits, 1987.

K. Pye and R. Johnson, Stratigraphy, geochemistry, and thermoluminescence ages of Lower Mississippi Valley loess. Earth Surface and Landforms, pp.103-124, 1988.

K. Pye, N. R. Winspear, and L. P. Zhou, Thermoluminesence ages of loess and associated sediments in Central Nebraska, pp.118-73, 1995.

D. K. Rea, The paleoclimatic record provided by eolian deposition in the deep sea: The geologic history of wind, Reviews of Geophysics, vol.7, issue.16, pp.32-159, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/93RG03257

P. Reid, R. Carey, S. , N. Ross, D. et al., Late Quaternary sedimentation in the Lesser Antilles Island arc, America Bulletin, issue.108, pp.78-100, 1996.

J. J. Reijmer, C. Betzler, D. Kroon, R. Tiedemann, and G. P. Eberli, Bahamian carbonate platform development in response to sea-level changes and the closure of the Isthmus of Panama, International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.91, issue.3, pp.91-482, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/s00531-001-0235-x

P. R. Reynolds and F. A. Aumento, Deep Drill 1972. Potassium???Argon Dating of the Bermuda Drill Core, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.11, issue.9, pp.1269-1273, 1974.
DOI : 10.1139/e74-118

C. I. Rich, Hydroxy-interlayers in expansible layers silicates. Clays and Clays Minerals, pp.15-30, 1968.

D. M. Robbin and J. J. Stipp, Depositionnal rate of laminated soilstone crusts, Florida Keys, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, pp.49-175, 1979.

W. F. Ruddiman, Tropical Atlantic terrigenous fluxes since 25,000 years B.P. Marine Geology, pp.189-207, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/s0025-3227(96)00069-2

B. F. Rueger, Recent atmospheric fallout of noncarbonate mineral grains on Bermuda and its relationship to NAO, pp.34-40, 2002.

B. F. Rueger, Avian origin of quartz grains in organic-rich sediments from Lover's Lake and Warwick Pond, Bermuda, Proceedings of the 11th symposium on the geology of the Bahamas and other carbonate regions, pp.215-230, 2004.

M. Sarnthein, Sand deserts during glacial maximum and climatic optimum, Nature, vol.2, issue.5648, pp.43-46, 1978.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-0182(74)90028-5

M. Sarnthein, G. Tetzlaff, B. Koopmann, K. Wolter, and U. Pflaumann, Glacial and interglacial wind regimes over the eastern subtropical Atlantic and North-West Africa, Nature, vol.18, issue.5829, pp.293-193, 1981.
DOI : 10.1038/293193a0

M. Sarnthein, J. Thiede, U. Pflaumann, H. Erlenkeuser, D. Fütterer et al., Atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns of Northwest Africa during the past 25 million years Geology of the Northwest African continental margin, pp.545-604, 1982.

S. Sassi, La sédimentation phosphatée au Paléocène dans le Sud et le Centre-Ouest de la Tunisie, Thèse de 3 ème cycle, p.pp, 1974.

R. W. Sayles, Bermuda during the Ice Age, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, pp.381-468, 1931.
DOI : 10.2307/20026356

W. Schlager and R. N. Ginsburg, Bahama carbonate platforms ??? The deep and the past, Marine Geology, vol.44, issue.1-2, pp.44-45, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-3227(81)90111-0

L. Schütz and M. Sebert, Mineral aerosols and source identification, Journal of Aerosol Science, vol.18, issue.1, pp.1-10, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-8502(87)90002-4

N. E. Sealey, Bahamian landscapes. An introduction to the geography of the Bahamas, 1994.

P. Segalen, Extraction du fer libre des sols à sesquioxydes par la méthode de De Endredy par irradiation à l'ultraviolet de solutions oxaliques. Cahier de l'Orstom, v. 8: Série Pédologie, p.4, 1970.

R. E. Sheridan, H. T. Mullins, J. A. Austin, . Jr, M. M. Ball et al., Geology and geophysics of the Bahamas The geology of North America, pp.329-364, 1988.

H. Sigurdsson and S. Carey, Marine tephrochronology and Quaternary explosive volcanism in the Lesser Antilles arc Tephra Studies, pp.255-280, 1981.

H. Sigurdsson, R. M. Kelley, S. Carey, T. Bralower, and J. King, History of circum-caribbean explosive volcanism: 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of tephra layers, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program Scientific Results, pp.165-299, 2000.

H. Sigurdsson, R. M. Leckie, G. D. Acton, and S. Party, Caribbean volcanism, Cretaceous/Tertiary impact, and ocean-climate history : synthesis of leg 165, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, pp.165-377, 1997.

H. Sigurdsson, R. S. Sparks, S. N. Carey, and T. C. Huang, Volcanogenic Sedimentation in the Lesser Antilles Arc, The Journal of Geology, vol.88, issue.5, pp.88-523, 1980.
DOI : 10.1086/628542

G. Silveira and E. Stutzmann, Anisotropic tomography of the Atlantic Ocean. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, pp.237-248, 2002.

D. J. Stanley and D. J. Swift, Bermuda's Southern Aeolianite Reef Tract, Science, vol.157, issue.3789, pp.677-681, 1967.
DOI : 10.1126/science.157.3789.677

A. Strasser, Black pebble occurence and genesis in Holocene carbonate sediments (Florida Keys, Bahamas and Tunisia), Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, pp.54-1097, 1984.

A. Strasser and E. Davaud, Black-pebble of the Purbeckien (Swiss and French Jura): lithology, geochemistry and origin. Eclogae Geologicae Helveticae, pp.73-551, 1983.

A. Svensson, P. E. Biscaye, and F. E. Grousset, Characterization of late glacial continental dust in the Greenland Ice Core Project ice core, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.102, issue.17, pp.105-4637, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/1999JD901093

J. K. Syers, M. L. Jackson, V. E. Berkheiser, R. N. Clayton, and R. W. Rex, EOLIAN SEDIMENT INFLUENCE ON PEDOGENESIS DURING THE QUATERNARY, Soil Science, vol.107, issue.6, pp.421-427, 1969.
DOI : 10.1097/00010694-196906000-00006

T. Tamura, Identification of the 14 Å clay mineral component, American Mineralogist, issue.42, pp.107-110, 1957.

R. M. Taylor, The Rapid Formation of Crystalline Double Hydroxy Salts and Other Compounds by Controlled Hydrolysis, Clay Minerals, vol.19, issue.4, pp.591-603, 1984.
DOI : 10.1180/claymin.1984.019.4.06

M. Thiry, Medard's Homepage Available from World Wide Web, 2006.

J. Thomassin, H. Touray, J. , and C. , L'hydrotalcite, un hydroxycarbonate transitoire précocément formé lors de l'interaction verre basaltique/eau de mer, Bulletin de Minéralogie, pp.105-312, 1982.

R. Titus, Emergent facies patterns on Field guide to the geology of, pp.92-105, 1980.

R. Titus, Geomorphology, stratigraphy, and the Quaternary history of San Salvador, Proceedings of the 3rd symposium on the geology of the Bahamas, pp.155-164, 1987.

B. E. Tucholke and G. S. Mountain, Seismic stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and paleosedimentation patterns in the North American basin Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic ocean: continental margins and paleoenvironments, pp.58-86, 1986.

B. E. Tucholke and P. R. Vogt, Initial reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 1979.
DOI : 10.2973/dsdp.proc.43.1979

M. E. Tucker and V. P. Wright, Carbonate sedimentology, p.482, 1990.
DOI : 10.1002/9781444314175

S. B. Upchurch, Sedimentation on the Bermuda platform, 1970.

H. L. Vacher, Late Pleistocene sea-level history: Bermuda evidence, 1971.

H. L. Vacher, Coastal dunes of Younger Bermuda Coastal geomorphology, pp.355-391, 1973.

H. L. Vacher and P. J. Hearty, History of stage 5 sea level in Bermuda: Review with new evidence of a brief rise to present sea level during Substage 5a, Quaternary Science Reviews, vol.8, issue.2, pp.159-168, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0277-3791(89)90004-8

H. L. Vacher, P. J. Hearty, and M. P. Rowe, Stratigraphy of Bermuda: nomenclature, concepts, and status of multiple systems of classifications Terrestrial and shallow marine geology of the Bahamas and Bermuda, pp.300-271, 1995.

H. L. Vacher and M. P. Rowe, Geology and hydrogeology of Bermuda Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate island, pp.54-89, 1997.

H. L. Vacher, M. P. Rowe, and P. Garrett, The geologic map of Bermuda, 1989.

J. Van-der-lee, Thermodynamic and mathematical concepts of CHESS, 1998.

A. E. Verrill, The Bermuda islands. Part VV, geology and paleontology, and Part V, an account of the coral reefs. Transaction of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, pp.12-45, 1907.

P. R. Vogt, Bermuda and Appalachian-Labrador rises: common non-hotspot processes? Geology, v. 19, pp.41-44, 1991.

C. E. Weaver and K. C. Beck, Miocene of the S.E. United States: A model for chemical sedimentation in a peri-marine environment, Sedimentary Geology, vol.17, issue.1-2, p.22, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0037-0738(77)90062-8

J. F. Wehmiller, A review of amino acid racemization studies in Quaternary mollusks: Stratigraphic and chronologic applications in coastal and interglacial sites, pacific and Atlantic coasts, United States, United Kingdom, baffin Island, and tropical islands, Quaternary Science Reviews, vol.1, issue.2, pp.83-120, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/0277-3791(82)90001-4

F. Whitaker, F. Smart, P. , and L. , Hydrogeology of the bahamian archipelago Geology and hydrogeology of the carbonate island, Development in Sedimentology, pp.54-183, 1997.

B. M. Wilke, B. J. Duke, and W. L. Jimoh, Mineralogy and chemistry of harmattan dust in Northern Nigeria, CATENA, vol.11, issue.1, pp.91-96, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/S0341-8162(84)80009-0

H. Williams, A. R. Mcbirney, and K. Aoki, Volcanic history of Honduras, p.pp, 1969.

J. T. Wilson, Continental Drift, Scientific American, vol.208, issue.4, p.13, 1963.
DOI : 10.1038/scientificamerican0463-86

J. T. Wilson, Evidence from Islands on the Spreading of Ocean Floors, Nature, vol.138, issue.4867, pp.536-538, 1963.
DOI : 10.1038/197536a0

G. Winter, A. Essene, E. , J. Peacor, D. et al., Carbonates and pyroxenoids from the manganese deposit near Bald Knob, American Mineralogist, pp.66-278, 1981.