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Inscription des races locales dans les conditions de production des produits animaux sous AOC : enjeux et conséquences pour la gestion collective des races mobilisées

Abstract : While biodiversity policies support the economic valorisation of the breeds, the local breed becomes a strong support of the territorial anchoring of the products under Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). A preliminary study confirms that, in France, the racial obligation is more and more often included in the technical rules of the animal PDO but shows the recurrence of the tensions. To what extent and under which conditions the mobilization of some breeds in PDO does induce change in the management of these breeds? We chose to consider two major kinds of conditions: the distribution of the weight of the collectives (breed vs. product) in the decision-making, and the leeway of the individual breeders in their strategies. This choice is tested on three identified objects of research: (i) evolution of the selection goals and programs, (ii) the dynamics of the practices of herds renewal and (iii) the appropriation of the breeds by the various stakeholders. Three contrasted situations (species, seniority of the coupling, and valorisation) are retained to observe the practices of the actors, to collect their speeches as well as technical and administrative documents: cow cheeses in Northern Alps, ewe cheese in the Western Pyrenees and the pork-butchery in Corsica Island. These situations were not selected for their representativeness but for their exemplarity in the expression of the influences of the breed-PDO coupling. The work was organized in two steps: (i) the analysis of the three cases, seeking to emphasize a possible expression of the framework and reflexions by case, and (ii) a comparative analysis of these reflexions resulting from the three situations, to build a more general model in order to understand the influences of the coupling on breed management. We observed the diversity of influences when the racial criterion is associated to a limit of performances: for some, this association leads in a systematic way to a modification of the selection criteria, whereas for others, an individual management by breeding practices represents the main lever. However, breed as a mandatory criterion seems to have a rather systematic impact on the development of the breeding animals market. Increasing demand of pure breed animals can support the development of breeds, but the risk to decrease the selection pressure remains. These various elements show the possible influences of the coupling on the breed management. We raised 7 criteria allowing to define the conditions of expressions of these influences, classified according to the type of influence observed. The criteria related to the interaction between the collectives concern a direct influence: financing of the collectives, cross representations (people having responsibilities in both the breed and the PDO management), distribution breed number. The criteria related to leeway of the breeders concern an indirect influence: range of values of the breeding animals, choice of the breeding animals, constitution of the herd and feeding practices. All these criteria enable us to build-up a model which, without claiming to be predictive, can help new situation to become more intelligible. Finally, we underline the concept of appropriation of the resource. Animal breeds may benefit from their appropriation by a group of people concerned by the PDO. However, some cases show the risks of monopolization of a given breed by this PDO group. We propose thus certain lines to develop a more general reflexion about conservation and valorisation of the local breeds.
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Contributor : Ecole Agroparistech <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, June 3, 2008 - 8:00:00 AM
Last modification on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 11:03:52 AM
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Adeline Lambert-Derkimba. Inscription des races locales dans les conditions de production des produits animaux sous AOC : enjeux et conséquences pour la gestion collective des races mobilisées. Life Sciences [q-bio]. AgroParisTech, 2007. English. ⟨NNT : 2007AGPT0062⟩. ⟨pastel-00003558⟩

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