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Modelling the effects of cropping systems and their spatial distribution on phoma stem canker on Winter OilSeed Rape and the adaptation of fungal pathogen populations responsible for the disease (Leptosphaeria maculans) to cultivar resistances.

Elise Lo-Pelzer
Abstract : One of the main control methods to manage phoma stem canker is the use of cultivars with specific or quantitative resistances. However, specific resistances lack durability. Other control methods can be used to manage the disease: chemical and cultural control methods (tillage to limit the quantity of primary inoculum on infected stubble, adaptation of the sowing date and rate, organic nitrogen supply to limit crop's receptivity to infections). The spatial and temporal combination of genetic, cultural and chemical control methods in a region makes it possible to better control the disease, to preserve the efficiency of specific resistant cultivars as well as economic profit for farmers, and to satisfy environmental and toxicological exigencies of integrated crop management. Given the considered scales and the number of technical operations that have to be taken into account, experiments are difficult, or simply impossible to set up to test control strategies. A model has been developed to test cropping systems that address these issues: SIPPOM-WOSR, a Simulator for Integrated Pathogen Population Management, for Winter OilSeed Rape. SIPPOM consists of 5 sub-models simulating i) primary inoculum production, ii) ascospore dispersal, iii) crop growth and attainable yield, iv) dynamics of pathogen population genetic structure, and v) infection and relative yield loss. Output variables are disease severity index and the associated yield loss, yield, gross margin, energetic cost of cultural practices and Treatments Frequency Index, as well as the genetic structure of pathogen populations, under the effect of four evolutionary forces (migration, selection, recombination, and Allee effect). An experiment has been set up to collect data on disease recurrence, and formalisms, as effect of quantitative resistance on disease severity or attainable yield calculation, have been completed with data from other experimentations. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the sensitivity of sub-models to parameter variations. Examples of simulation illustrate how SIPPOM can be used to test integrated and durable disease control strategies.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 1, 2008 - 8:00:00 AM
Last modification on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 11:07:52 AM
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Elise Lo-Pelzer. Modelling the effects of cropping systems and their spatial distribution on phoma stem canker on Winter OilSeed Rape and the adaptation of fungal pathogen populations responsible for the disease (Leptosphaeria maculans) to cultivar resistances.. Life Sciences [q-bio]. AgroParisTech, 2008. English. ⟨NNT : 2008AGPT0030⟩. ⟨pastel-00003792⟩

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