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Extraction de caractéristiques, segmentation d'image et morphologie mathématique

Corinne Vachier
Abstract : The purpose of this thesis is to investigate new morphological methods for extracting the characteristics of an image regions. These methods are destined to be applied to image segmentation. Two different approaches are first presented : the first one is based on granulometries (classical sieving process), the second one considers the image extrema. We then focus on the latter and on the study of dynamics. This transformation associates with each image extremum the contrast of the region it marks. We show that it can be considered as a contrast sieving process and that it is closely linked to granulometric approaches. We then propose a generalization of the dynamics concept using connected morpholog- ical operators. These operators act on grey level images by simply propagating their flat zones. By computing more and more selective connected filters, image structures progres- sively disappear. The level for which one given structure is totally eliminated characterizes the structure in terms of the filtering criterion : in terms of contrast, size, shape... This leads us to introduce a new class of morphological transformations, the extinction func- tions, which associate with each image extremum a characteristic of the region it marks. An extinction function key concept is that of merging tree of image extrema which corre- sponds to a hierarchical description of the image regions. Extinction functions can be used for selecting significant regions in an image. They are therefore of great interest in filtering and segmentation applications (for solving the well known marking step before computing watershed transform). We illustrate the lat- ter point with many segmentation examples. The results obtained by this method are compared with the results deduced from more classical approaches. The most significant contribution of extinction functions in segmentation applications is to simplify the adjust- ment of segmentation algorithms based on the watershed transform. In particular, they allow to produce efficient hierarchical interactive segmentation algorithms.
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Corinne Vachier. Extraction de caractéristiques, segmentation d'image et morphologie mathématique. Mathematics [math]. École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 1995. English. ⟨pastel-00004230⟩

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