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DYNAMICS OF CHANGE WITHIN LIVESTOCK SUB-SECTOR IN CHAD : a key-study of raw milk commodity chain in N'Djamena

Abstract : Human population annually grows at the rate of 6 % in N'Djamena, capital city and main town of Chad, leading to a dramatic increase in the demand in milk and milk products like in many other African countries. Contrarily to most of the African capital cities who import milk powder to meet these requirements, we surprisingly assist in Chad to a higher interest in local dairy products. Is this Chadian specificity an expression of the adaptation of breeding systems to this new economic demand? A survey was carried out within N'Djamena and its periphery for a better understanding (i) of the part of local production in urban supply, and (ii) of the linkages between market requirements and changes in breeding systems. This survey leant on an analysis of the commodity chain: production, commercialisation, and consumption of milk and milk products. A total of 372 consumers, 254 traders, 51 transformers, and 161 farmers were investigated. Both local and imported milk products' consumption is highly correlated to alimentary habits and family incomes. Furthermore, milk and milk products consumption dramatically increases outside the houses, due to the enjoyment in a locally produced fermented whole milk, the rayeb, which is mainly distributed in milk bars within the town. Several different commodity chains supply N'Djamena in local milk and milk products, like fresh milk, curdled milk, and camel milk, and our study evidenced their dynamism and the complementarities between them; however, the chain of fresh cow milk, based on many collecting micro-enterprises, is the more dynamic as it supplies the processing factories which add value to the local product. All these micro-enterprises based on milk production and transformation act as a driving force behind changes in every level of the milk value chain in Chad. Another conclusion of our work is that camel milk value chain development is not competing with cow milk filiere: camel milk is mainly consumed by populations originating of northern pastoral zones and constitutes a specific niche in Chad. Our study also focused on the role of both pastoral and agro-pastoral breeding systems in supplying N'Djamena in local milk, and evidenced that farmers' practices in peri-urban areas have been changing into a market-oriented production system. This survey concluded on a high adaptation potential of Sahelian pastoralism to a changing environment, contrarily to the cliché of contemplative farming system in this area of the planet. These changes are highly dependant on both the dynamism of micro-enterprises at the end of the value chain and the consumption habits. Our results through this filiere approach allow us to propose relevant recommendations to politics and projects in Chad: to secure milk and milk products supply in African towns, priority must be concomitantly given to outlet sustainability, services and inputs provision, and land constraints. To stimulate the changes in milk commodity chain around N'Djamena, research activities should now better veterinary and alimentary inputs' accessibility and promote both micro-credit and farmers' associations
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 27, 2009 - 8:00:00 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, May 27, 2009 - 8:00:00 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, September 30, 2010 - 9:08:40 PM


  • HAL Id : pastel-00005159, version 1



Koussou Mian Oudanang. DYNAMICS OF CHANGE WITHIN LIVESTOCK SUB-SECTOR IN CHAD : a key-study of raw milk commodity chain in N'Djamena. Life Sciences [q-bio]. AgroParisTech, 2008. English. ⟨NNT : 2008AGPT0080⟩. ⟨pastel-00005159⟩



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