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Theses Year : 2009

Magneto-Hydrodynamic Activity and Energetic Particles - Application to Beta Alfvén Eigenmodes.



The goal of magnetic fusion research is to extract the power released by fusion reactions and carried by the product of these reactions, liberated at energies of the order of a few MeV. The feasibility of fusion energy production relies on our ability to confine these energetic particles, while keeping the thermonuclear plasma in safe operating conditions. For that purpose, it is necessary to understand and find ways to control the interaction between energetic particles and the thermonuclear plasma. Reaching these two goals is the general motivation for the work conducted during the PhD. More specifically, our focus is on one type of instability, the Beta Alfven Eigenmode (BAE), which can be driven by energetic particles and impact on the confinement of both energetic and thermal particles. In this work, we study the characteristics of BAEs analytically and derive its dispersion relation and structure. Next, we analyze the linear stability of the mode in the presence of energetic particles. First, a purely linear description is used, which makes possible to get an analytical linear criterion for BAE destabilization in the presence of energetic particles. This criterion is compared with experiments conducted in the Tore-Supra tokamak during the PhD. Secondly, because the linear analysis reveals some features of the BAE stability which are subject to a strong non-linear modification, the question is raised of the possibility of a sub-critical activity of the mode. We propose a simple scenario which makes possible the existence of meta-stable modes, verified analytically and numerically. Such a scenario is found to be relevant to the physics and scales characterizing BAEs.
La faisabilite de la fusion magnetique est dependante de notre capacite a confiner l'energie des particules supra-thermiques liberees a haute energie par les reactions de fusion, dans les meilleures conditions de securite et d'efficacite. Dans ce but, il est necessaire de comprendre l'interaction entre les particules energetiques et le plasma thermo-nucleaire qui constitue l'environnement des reactions de fusion, afin de la controler. La these que nous presentons ici s'inscrit dans cet effort. Le coeur du travail mene est l'etude d'un type d'instabilite, le Beta Alfven Eigenmode (BAE), que peuvent exciter les particules energetiques, et dont on peut craindre qu'il degrade fortement non seulement le confinement des particules energetiques mais aussi le confinement du plasma dans sa globalite. Dans un premier temps, nous nous attacherons a decrire les caracteristiques de ce mode et nous deriverons sa relation de dispersion ainsi que sa structure. Dans une seconde partie, nous effectuerons l'etude de la stabilite lineaire de ce mode en presence de particules energetiques. Cette etude nous a permis de definir un critere analytique rendant compte de la capacite des particules energetiques a exciter le BAE. Ce critere sera discute et confronte aux resultats d'experiences menees durant la these. Cette etude lineaire presentant cependant quelques limites, il nous est apparu important de nous poser la question de la possibilite d'une modication de la stabilite du BAE liee a l'utilisation d'une description non-lineaire. Nous suggererons dans cette presentation un processus, verifie analytiquement et numeriquement, dont peut resulter l'existence d'etats meta-stables pour le BAE.
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pastel-00005642 , version 1 (21-07-2010)


  • HAL Id : pastel-00005642 , version 1


Christine Nguyen. Magneto-Hydrodynamic Activity and Energetic Particles - Application to Beta Alfvén Eigenmodes.. Physics [physics]. Ecole Polytechnique X, 2009. English. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨pastel-00005642⟩
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