Aide aux choix de conception de bâtiments économes en énergie

Abstract : In order to respond to global warming and natural resources depletion challenges, industrials from the building sector need to propose an adequate offer. Energy simulation tools can support this process. Various studies and real cases show that a high performance level, e.g. primary energy consumption below 50 kWh.m-² per year (including heating, cooling, domestic hot water, lighting and ventilation), can be reached by appropriate architecture combined with high insulation, free cooling and heat recovery on exhaust air. This last technology is particularly affected by airflows across the building envelope caused by a low air tightness. Thermal modelling tools need therefore to deal with this issue precisely.A multizone model has been developed to compute building airflows in order to evaluate them with a higher degree of precision in the frame of a simplified simulation tool that can be used in early design phases. This model is based on the well-mixed zones assumption and mass conservation principles. The air flow rate between two zones is expressed as a function of the pressure drop between those two zones. Wind pressure and buoyancy effects are the causes of pressure drops. Several types of connections are implemented: cracks, ventilation inlets, large openings. This model has been implemented in the thermal building simulation tool COMFIE. The airflow model uses the zone temperatures as an input and reciprocally the thermal model requires the airflows. Both models run therefore at each time step until convergence is reached using a synchronous coupling method. Two case studies are presented. First, the case of a residential building, project of Vinci Construction France where the influence of air tightness on heating loads is being studied. Then the case of a concept building, Effibat, being developed by Vinci Construction France and MINES ParisTech. This building is an urban dwelling building including an atrium. Natural ventilation is used to cool the building at night in summer and the model aims at evaluating the resulting comfort level.
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Maxime Trocmé. Aide aux choix de conception de bâtiments économes en énergie. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009ENMP1674⟩. ⟨pastel-00005892⟩

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