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Ingénierie génétique de la levure oléagineuse Yarrowia Lipolytica pour la production de lipides

Abstract : Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast with a remarkable potential for growth and lipid accumulation in hydrophobic environments. In this study we have expanded our knowledge of lipid metabolism in this yeast with an emphasis on lipid accumulation and degradation capacity, and the regulation and interaction of the different metabolic pathways. The study of metabolic enzymes in oleaginous microorganisms and their functional specifications in comparison with the non-oleaginous microorganisms has led us to focus on the enzymes potentially conferring the oleaginous character. The objective of this study is to combine the knowledge of yeast's physiology with the existing genetic tools to use Y. lipolytica as a cell factory for the production of large amounts of lipids with an industrial interest. In order to redirect carbon flux towards lipid synthesis, the GUT2 gene coding for a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isomer and the β-oxidation pathway were invalidated in Y. lipolytica leading to a strong increase of lipid accumulation. As to identify the limiting step of TAG synthesis and to construct strains with altered lipid profiles, we have modified the expression level of acyltransferases and desaturases. The relative contribution of acyltransferases depends on the growth phase and their affinity towards the acylation substrate is complementary. The modification of desaturases allowed the accumulation of specific fatty acids, thus demonstrating the possibility of modulating lipid profile in Y. lipolytica. This study has enabled us to construct hyper accumulative strains with added-value lipid profiles that could find biotechnological applications in the energy (biodiesel) field or in the oleochemical industry as alternative units for specific substrate production.
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 8, 2010 - 8:00:00 AM
Last modification on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 10:56:13 AM
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  • HAL Id : pastel-00005952, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 246472

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Athanasios Beopoulos. Ingénierie génétique de la levure oléagineuse Yarrowia Lipolytica pour la production de lipides. Biotechnologies. INAPG (AgroParisTech), 2009. Français. ⟨pastel-00005952⟩

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