Abstract : This thesis is part of a project aiming at the determination of a low environmental impact concrete. We focus on mixes of sulfoaluminate clinker and gypsum : this type of mixture enables to minimize not only CO2 emissions but also energy wastes during the production process (compared to Portland clinker productions). We present in this manuscript the experimental study that was performed in order to determine the physicochemical behaviour of the binder obtained by mixing sulfoaluminate clinker and gypsum and the constructive properties of such mixtures ; one of the main hydratation product of sulfoaluminate clinker being ettringite, we also study the stability of such mixtures towerd humid medium. We first identify the compositions (gypsum percentage) of the binder that lead to stable concretes i.e. that produce concrete samples that do not show any macroscopic cracks after being immersed in water ; we also show that the stability domain is positively influenced by the maturity reached by the material when the samples are immersed in water. We used a complete set of designed experiments in order to study the influence of the alkalis percentage and temperature : results show that the compositions have a good behaviour toward those variables, not very sensitive to these parameters. We furthermore study the hydratation phenomenon of the binders and show that damage of the instable samples is not due to the formation of new hydrates. We finally present a complete study of the rheology and compression resistance of concrete samples plus an evaluation of the corrosion risks. The present work enables the identification of the use domain for that binder.