Systèmes électromécaniques nanométriques a base de nano-fils de silicium et nanotubes de carbone

Ervin Mile 1, 2
2 LISO - Laboratoire Interfaces et Surfaces d'Oxydes
SPEC - UMR3680 - Service de physique de l'état condensé, IRAMIS - Institut Rayonnement Matière de Saclay
Abstract : Nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) are nano-scale devices composed by mechanical moving parts and the electronic circuitry. They integrate electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale. Their purpose is to sense a specific physical quantity and convert it into a measurable electrical signal. The main building blocks constituting the mechanical moving parts of a NEMS are silicon nano-beams, nanocantilevers, carbon nanotubes and nanowires. A change in the environment will cause a change in their mechanical and electrical properties (motion amplitude, resonance frequency, quality factor etc). This variation is converted by appropriate transducers into a processable electrical signal. These devices allow collecting environmental information such as changes of temperature, pressure, mass and forces. Their small masses, high mechanical resonance frequencies (10Mhz-1Ghz), large quality factors, increased sensitivity and low power consumption allows for better performing sensors. NEMS offer a wide range of potential applications. They are envisaged to be used in ultra-small mass and force sensing applications, for biological or chemical sensors. Nevertheless the great advantages offered by NEMS, it doesn't exist yet a well established technique for detecting efficiently the electrical signal generated by the mechanical displacement of these nanostructures. The most important technological challenge in nano-electromechanical systems operation is the efficient detection of sub-nanometer displacements at high frequencies. The transduction efficiency determines the devices performances and sets its limits. The objective of this thesis is focused on solving this major problem. The research is specially focused on developing a nanowire-based detection technique for transducing the nano-mechanical displacement into an electrical signal. The work shown in this thesis has been organized around three principal axes: The first part aims to evaluate and compare theoretically different actuation/detection schemes for nanowire-based NEMS in order to choose the one which presents the highest transduction gain and signal to background ratio (SBR). This approach is crucial since the results of this study will decide the continuation of our research and the techniques to be implemented. This work is the starting basis before moving to development. The second part is dedicated to the fabrication of NEMS devices and to the implementation of an actuation/detection scheme for mechanical motion detection at frequencies up to 100MHz. This step allows us to continue with the experimental evaluation of the transduction efficiency. The third part is centred on the experimental characterization of the transduction efficiency. The central parameters that are going to be explored are the transduction gain, the signal to background ratio, the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the resonance frequency of the devices, the quality factor, the ultimate displacement and mass resolution. The experimental results are of high importance since they are used to confirm the expectations and to validate the theoretical analysis. Finally the results have been compared with the state of the art results, in order to highlight the advances and contribution in the field.
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Ervin Mile. Systèmes électromécaniques nanométriques a base de nano-fils de silicium et nanotubes de carbone. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Ecole Polytechnique X, 2010. Français. ⟨pastel-00551920⟩

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