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Influence d'une supplémentation en monosodium glutamate sur la physiologie gastro-intestinale et le métabolisme chez le rat et l'Homme

Abstract : Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used worldwide as a flavour enhancer for it unique taste called "umami". As reported in literature, glutamate receptors are present in peripheric tissues and so L-glutamate as free amino acid could exert some physiologic functions. We have assessed the effects of MSG supplementation on gastrointestinal physiology, pancreatic secretion and metabolism in the rat model and in healthy humans.
In rats; 2%-MSG supplementation during 15 days decreased glutaminase activity in intestinal mucosa and increased circulating glutamine concentration and transiently insulinemia. But no effect of MSG was observed on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit despite glutamate accumulation in stomach during 5h and in small intestine during 1h after the meal.
In healthy humans, 2g-MSG supplementation during 7 days increased the antral area of stomach 2h after the meal compared to NaCl. It was associated with an increase of circulating glutamate, leucine, isoleucine, cysteine, tyrosine, ornithine and serine concentrations. However, this increase of stomach antral area was not associated with an effect on gastric emptying; as no effect of MSG was recorded on dietary nitrogen incorporation. Hormonal response (insulin, ghrelin, GLP-1) was also not modified. Finally hunger and satiation state measured by visual analogic scales were not influenced by MSG supplementation. MSG effect on gastric secretion as determinant for antral distension increase without effect on gastric emptying is discussed as well as possible sparing effect of glutamate on some amino acid catabolism by intestine. These results have allowed to highlight some metabolic and physiological effects of MSG supplementation without measured deleterious effect. Additional studies are needed in order to better understand MSG mechanism of action.
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https://pastel.archives-ouvertes.fr/pastel-00555993
Contributor : Claire Boutry <>
Submitted on : Friday, January 14, 2011 - 5:25:35 PM
Last modification on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 11:09:37 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, December 2, 2016 - 1:55:05 PM

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Claire Boutry. Influence d'une supplémentation en monosodium glutamate sur la physiologie gastro-intestinale et le métabolisme chez le rat et l'Homme. Alimentation et Nutrition. AgroParisTech, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010AGPT0099⟩. ⟨pastel-00555993⟩

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