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Theses

Une approche d'analyse risque/bénéfice de la consommation de poissons et produits de la mer

Abstract : Context. Food provides the nutrients which enable the body to function on a physiological level as well as delivering contaminants that may affect health. From a public health point of view, both aspects must be considered in order to determine optimum food consumption levels. Seafood is an interesting example as it provides n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), vitamins and minerals but also methylmercury, arsenic and persistent organic pollutants. Objective. The aim of this thesis was to determine in what quantities seafood consumption would provide nutritional benefits while minimising the risks linked to food contaminants. Methods. Analyses were mainly based on data from the Calipso survey conducted among 996 high seafood consumers (at least twice a week) aged 18 and over. Their nutritional intakes and their exposure to contaminants were assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and through biomarker data. This made it possible to select nutrients and contaminants of interest, since seafood contributes significantly to both the intake of nutritional requirements and exposure to nutritional and health risks. The risk/benefit analysis consisted in using an optimization model with constraints to calculate optimum seafood consumption levels. The goal was to optimize nutritional intakes as well as contaminant exposure with the condition being to attain recommended nutritional intakes without exceeding tolerable upper intakes for contaminants and nutrients, while taking into account background intakes. Results. Among high seafood consumers, the health risk linked to methylmercury and arsenic appeared to be significant. Seafood also appeared to contribute largely to the intake of vitamin D and certain minerals. Moreover, consumption higher than 200 g/week of high fat fish does not seem to imply a higher benefit in terms of cardiovascular health biomarkers when compared with lower consumption. Taking this data into account, an optimum consumption level was calculated that minimises inorganic arsenic exposure and increases vitamin D intake in the general population. In parallel, this consumption level guarantees that the consumer attains the recommended intake for n-3 LC-PUFA, selenium and iodine, while remaining below the tolerable upper intakes for methylmercury, cadmium, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, zinc, calcium, and copper. This consumption level is approximately 200 g/week of certain fatty fish species and approximately 50 g/week of lean fish, molluscs, and crustaceans. Conclusion. Optimum seafood consumption levels providing both nutritional benefit and controlled risk have been calculated. This study highlights the necessity of reducing arsenic exposure and refining results using the model for certain subgroups of the population while taking into account the specificities of these populations.
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https://pastel.archives-ouvertes.fr/pastel-00566527
Contributor : Véronique Sirot <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, February 16, 2011 - 3:21:14 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 20, 2020 - 10:50:49 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Saturday, December 3, 2016 - 12:54:34 PM

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  • HAL Id : pastel-00566527, version 1

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Véronique Sirot. Une approche d'analyse risque/bénéfice de la consommation de poissons et produits de la mer. Santé publique et épidémiologie. AgroParisTech, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010AGPT0072⟩. ⟨pastel-00566527⟩

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