Abstract : Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by abnormal inflammation of digestive tract. Several studies have shown positive effects of anti-inflammatory probiotic (native or recombinant) or commensal bacterial strains. The first part of this PhD thesis describes different optimization strategies of the use of lactic acid bacteria as proteins delivery vector. We have shown that the modification of peptidoglycan of Lactococcus lactis influencing lysis rate does not confer any advantage in both persistence in gastrointestinal tract and proteins delivery vector abilities. We showed that nature of bacterial vector is an essential parameter to deliver protein of health interest: Bifidobacterium infantis could increase higher immune response against E7 antigen than the ones obtained with L. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum. In the second part of this PhD thesis, we analized anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant probiotic or commensal bacteria. We showed that Lb. casei BL23 producing superoxide dismutase could significantly protect mice from dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis damages. Finally, we observed anti-inflammatory properties on cellulars and animals models of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, the first commensal anti-inflammatory bacterium identified by analysis of human clinical data.