Abstract : Photon correlation properties are now harnessed in various experiments and applications (photon correlation spectroscopy, high resolution profiling, quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation...). The determination of the correlation properties of light is thus of paramount importance and corresponds to the topic investigated in this PhD thesis. Firstly, the semiclassical concept of Two-Photon Counter is experimentally revisited using two photon absorption in various semiconductors and leads to the development of the foundations of an unified two-photon counting theory. Then, two photon conductivity in semiconductors is exploited in a new technique that enables the determination of second order correlation of cw optical sources with output power down to 0.1 µW, bandwidth in the 1.1 to 1.7 µm range and time resolution in the femtosecond range. Experimentally, the system is similar to a Hanbury Brown & Twiss interferometer but, in our case, the two delayed sub-beams are recombined in a two-photon counting device. Thanks to the huge available bandwidth, broadband source correlations are characterized by measuring, with the same apparatus, the degree of second order coherence of chaotic sources or optical parametric generator (both degenerate and non degenerate cases). For the first time, the bunching effect in a real blackbody is unambiguously shown down to the femtosecond level. Concerning parametric light, after developing down converted source, we demonstrate that our experimental set-up is able to determine the exact coincidence of twin photon as well as the accidental one between photons from different pairs by controlling chromatic dispersion phenomena with a prism pair set-up. Finally, two theoretical modeling of twin photons correlation were developed, based on a full quantum theory of two multimodal-photon interaction and a classical stochastic field approach, and are both in excellent agreement with all our experimental results.