Abstract : This thesis is a collaboration between the Robotics Centre CAOR of MINES ParisTech and MENSI-Trimble under the CIFRE (Convention Industrielle de Formation par la Recherche) convention, to desgin an innovative laser scanning system dedicated to mobile mapping systems. We developed a method for the qualitative analysis of point-cloud data and the conception of a mobile mapping system using simulation. We elaborated several concepts for mobile laser scanners, which we realized virtually using the simulator. We performed data acquisitions in order to analyze the simulated data. We chose the most suitable concept, based on our analysis results, constructed a prototype and assessed its performance in a real environment.