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Évolution métallurgique et résistance en fluage à 600°C et 650°C d'aciers à 9-12% Cr

Abstract : 9-12%Cr tempered martensite steels are used for high temperature (400-600°C) especially applications in components of fossil power plants, such as tubes, pipes, heaters. These components are exposed to creep, thermal aging, fatigue, oxidation, corrosion. The development of advanced heat resistant steels with improved long-term creep strength relies on a better understanding of the long-term microstructural evolution and of its influence on the creep strength. This study aims at better understanding of the effect of microstructural evolution on long-term creep strength at 600°C and 650°C of a Grade 92 steel. There are rather few published data on the microstructure of the Grade 92 steel after long-term creep or thermal aging exposure (times higher than 10,000h) both at 600°C and 650°C. Thus, in a first part, P92 steel specimens that had been creep tested for times up to 50,000h at 600°C and 650°C were investigated using transmission electron microscopy on extractive replicas of precipitates, scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction to get data on the microstructure of the Grade 92 steel after long-term exposure. These investigations revealed significant precipitation of Laves phases, recovery of the matrix and little precipitation of modified Z-phase. A quantification of the Laves phases and creep damage were realized by image analysis of scanning electron micrographs. Significant precipitation of Laves phase and recovery of the matrix seem to be the most prominent microstructural degradation mechanisms. To separately investigate the effect of each of these two mechanisms on creep strength, creep tests were conducted on thermally aged and thermo-mechanically prepared creep specimens.
Creep tests were also conducted on notched specimens.
Thermally aged creep specimens enable to study the effect of large Laves phases on the creep strength. A time to rupture four times lower was observed on the aged creep specimens compared to a standard creep test for same testing conditions. This seems not be confirmed, however, at low stresses.
Two creep specimens thermo-mechanically prepared by creep-fatigue prestraining at 550°C were used to study the effect of the matrix substructure on the creep strength. A time to rupture twice lower was observed at 600°C (short-term creep) on a thermo-mechanically prepared creep specimen compared to a standard one for the same testing conditions. No such effect was detected at 650°C in the low stress regime. Creep tests were also conducted on notched specimens with various notch shapes to study the effect of stress triaxiality on creep damage. In notched specimens higher amounts of creep damage were observed compared to smooth specimens for similar testing time.
A finite element mechanical model coupling microstructural evolution and creep damage was proposed to estimate the long-term creep strength of the Grade 92 steel at 600°C and 650°C. The model taking stress triaxiality into account might also be used to estimate the remaining life of service components and to analyze service components with complex geometry more sensitive to creep damage due to stress triaxiality.
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https://pastel.archives-ouvertes.fr/pastel-00579983
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Submitted on : Friday, March 25, 2011 - 3:55:18 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 20, 2020 - 11:23:12 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Sunday, June 26, 2011 - 2:45:44 AM

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  • HAL Id : pastel-00579983, version 1

Citation

Clara Panait. Évolution métallurgique et résistance en fluage à 600°C et 650°C d'aciers à 9-12% Cr. Matériaux. École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010ENMP0024⟩. ⟨pastel-00579983⟩

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