Abstract : Many applications, like time-resolved spectroscopy, require the development of new coherent light sources emitting tunable short pulses in the mid-infrared. In this field, nonlinear optics offer particularly attractive solutions. First of all, the parametric generation process allows extension of the spectral coverage of conventionnal laser sources. Secondly, nonlinear processes display specific properties, which can be controlled in order to create original fast optical functions. In this work, we use these properties to realize picosecond pulses generation devices. We begin with the realization of a synchronously pumped OPO based on a ZGP crystal, emitting tunable picosecond pulses in the 3,8 µm- 5,6 µm spectral range. The performances of the different conversion stages are discussed from experimental and numerical considerations. Then we adress optical sources including a laser medium and a nonlinear crystal. We build a nonlinear mirror using a PPLN crystal and insert it in a Cr2+:ZnSe laser to produce tunable picosecond pulses by passive modelocking in the 2,45 µm - 2,55 µm range. The nonlinear mirror is designed and characterized in an extracavity experiment, then we detail the mode-locking experiment. Finally, we generalize the nonlinear mirror concept, by proposing means of getting passive mode-locking by combination of amplitude and phase modulation in the laser cavity.