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Effets de régimes hyperlipidique et cafeteria sur le développement de l'obésité et ses désordres associés chez la souris

Abstract : Introduction: Obesity results from a prolonged imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, as depending on basal metabolic rate, heat production, thermogenic effects of the diet and physical activity. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) in rodents can be achieved by different regimens and approaches. Diets providing a high fat intake have been established as a "gold standard" to generate obese rodent models and have proven to initiate pathologies similar to those encountered in humans. However, this dietary treatment is far from being standardized and its relevance has been criticised on the basis of findings in humans that total energy intake rather than fat per se determines body fat accumulation in humans. Hence, cafeteria diets have been introduced by providing a choice of several palatable food items of variable composition, appearance and texture in addition to a non-purified diet. Those approaches have been shown to induce obesity by a hyperphagia. Objective: This thesis aimed at comparing the effects of a high fat vs. a cafeteria diet on food intake, weight gain and determinants of energy homeostasis and metabolism in obese mice. Results: Our key findings demonstrate that both a high fat and a cafeteria diet were almost equally efficient in driving an obese phenotype but did not necessarily elicit the same metabolic changes. The cafeteria diet as characterised by a higher carbohydrate (mainly sucrose) and lower fat content seemed to be more deleterious for liver steatohepatosis and provoked more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota. Despite a lower cholesterol content than in the high fat diet, mice fed the cafeteria diet presented levels of circulating cholesterol as high as animals on a high fat diet. Changes in gene expression in liver and intestine suggested an increased de novo synthesis of cholesterol and altered transport and those effects were more pronounced in animals receiving a high fat diet. Most strikingly, the pronounced effects of the two high calorie diets causing obesity when compared to animals on control diet remaining lean vanished when diets with identical composition were supplied in powder form and not as standard pellets. Here, even the control diet with a high starch but very low fat content caused a substantial weight gain with only minor differences to the two other high-calorie diets. Conclusion: The results presented here raise the question of whether high fat diets used for induction of obesity are the proper models to simulate human obesity and its pathologies. Cafeteria diets are equally effective and are closer to human diets.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 21, 2011 - 10:43:44 AM
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Charles Desmarchelier. Effets de régimes hyperlipidique et cafeteria sur le développement de l'obésité et ses désordres associés chez la souris. Alimentation et Nutrition. AgroParisTech, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010AGPT0022⟩. ⟨pastel-00601961⟩

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