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Circulation enzootique du virus West Nile en population équine : identification de facteurs de risque environnementaux en Camargue, France

Abstract : Our objective was to assess risk of endemic circulation of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in horses in Camargue, where WNV caused several outbreaks (1962, 2000 and 2004). Epidemiology of WN disease is much complex, due to the great number of vector and host species potentially involved. Mainly transmitted by vectors, WNV circulation is deeply influenced by environmental factors. Horses were chosen as indicator of WNV circulation, because they are particularly sensitive to infection by this virus. The method applied in our studies is based on the use of direct link between environment and endemic circulation of WNV, by studying seropositivity in horses (IgG). In the first two studies, some environmental risk factors have been identified, such as land cover classes (heterogeneous agricultural areas, flooded vegetation) or landscape metrics (Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index). Risk map of endemic WNV circulation were computed for French Mediterranean coast. Individual risk factors, like breed, age and activity of horses were also identified. In the third study, WNV transmission processes in Camargue were assessed. In the study region, WNV would be introduced by migrating birds and amplified by Culex modestus and many competent bird species. Dilution effect would have no impact on WNV amplification in Camargue. WNV would be transmitted to horses by both C. modestus and C. pipiens. Our results could permit to target monitoring of this disease in France and apply control measures well adapted to local conditions.
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Submitted on : Monday, July 4, 2011 - 2:15:22 PM
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Sophie Pradier. Circulation enzootique du virus West Nile en population équine : identification de facteurs de risque environnementaux en Camargue, France. Santé publique et épidémiologie. AgroParisTech, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010AGPT0085⟩. ⟨pastel-00605812⟩

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