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Durabilité écologique et économique de l'exploitation forestière pour la production de bois d'œuvre et pour le stockage du carbone en Amazonie

Abstract : The main objective of this study was to assess the ecological and economical sustainability of selective logging in the Amazonian context. Two sites were selected: 1) the site of Paracou in French Guiana where forest dynamics has been monitored since 1984; 2) a forest managed in the state of Pará, offering data on the impact of logging, its costs and revenues. At first, this work consisted of improving the Selva model elaborating 11 specific models to mortality and recruitment. The processes of standing dead trees and falling trees were identified by the models. The former mainly used biological variables characteristic of the tree whereas the latter preferentially included descriptive variables of the surrounding stand. Specific variables of stand structure and stand floristic composition allowed to model the recruitment of 30 species which were mainly pioneer/light demanding species. The inclusion of these models allowed to integrate 92 life strategies in the Selva model. The virtual forest so created shows a stand structure and specific diversity close to a primary forest. In the framework of the Brazilian forest legislation advocating 25-35 year - rotation cycles, logging simulation by Selva showed that it would be possible to harvest 4 trees/ha/cycle while maintaining the basal area 20% lower than the original one before logging. Selective logging generated benefits varying between 147 and 239 US$/ha/year whereas deforestation ones were slightly higher (295 US$/ha/year). A framework of financial compensation to change from a production system with a negative carbon balance (deforestation) to a selective logging would represent a Carbon Ton cost higher than US$ 10
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Lucas Mazzei de Freitas. Durabilité écologique et économique de l'exploitation forestière pour la production de bois d'œuvre et pour le stockage du carbone en Amazonie. Sylviculture, foresterie. AgroParisTech, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010AGPT0045⟩. ⟨pastel-00611175⟩

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