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Modélisation temporelle de l'interaction roue/rail pour une application au bruit de roulement ferroviaire

Abstract : Rolling noise is the main source of railway transportation noise, for a wide speed range. To predict rolling noise, the SNCF, the French railway company, uses a simulation tool, based on a frequency approach. Although it is very efficient in case of standard straight ballasted track and constant train speed, this approach is limited to wheel and rail without large amplitude defaults. Therefore, a time domain approach has been considered to extend the rolling noise modelling to the impact noise, which is due to discrete irregularities on either of the two structures, such as rail joints or wheelflats. The main purpose of this PhD thesis is to build a time domain simulation tool of the wheel/rail vertical interaction, in the scope of the rolling noise modelling. First, the model input data, the wheel/rail contact model and the vibration model of the wheel are introduced. The input data consists in the definition of a relative vertical displacement between the rail and the wheel, called relative roughness, based on spatial roughness data. The wheel/rail contact is represented by a nonlinear Hertzian model which allows contact loss. A simple mass-spring-damper model represents the vertical motion of the wheel, in the context of the track vertical vibration simulation. The second step of the simulation tool is to build a railway track model, which allows to represent an infinite structure with a numerical finite one, essential for a time domain approach. The rail is represented by a beam of finite length, periodically supported by some mass-spring-damper systems (describing the pad-sleeper-ballast support systems). The boundary conditions of the rail are defined to absorb the wave reflection at boundaries. Some numerical absorbing boundary conditions have thus been specified. The second aim of this PhD thesis is to characterize rolling noise and impact noise through experimentation, in case of large amplitude defaults on the rail and/or the wheel. Measurement tests have been realised in real situation. Two test sites have been set up on the specially selected railway track. The first one is on the long welded rail area (LRS: Long Rail Soudé) and the second site on the rail joints area (JR: Joint de Rail). The train used for the measurement tests has been equiped with some wheels specially selected for their surface defaults. During this measurement tests, different kinds of measures have been performed. Characterization measures such as the surface roughness on wheels and rail and the track accelerance have been performed. The rail and sleepers vibration behaviour and the noise levels during the train pass-by have been measured. The purpose of such measurements is double. First, it allows to introduce an experimental characterization of the acoustical and vibrational behaviour of the wheel/rail system, in different situations. These conclusions lead to general specifications for an experimental tool, dedicated to the wheel default detection, thanks to measurements at the track border. The second interest of these measurements is to provide input data for the wheel/rail interaction time domain model, and also to provide data which can be used to explore the performances of this model. The complete wheel/rail interaction problem is solved by using the finite difference method. The assessment of the time domain model performances is carried out through different comparisons. The absorbing boundary conditions efficiency has first been explored. A comparison between simulated and measured results has been then achieved. First, the time domain ability to reproduce the measured dynamics of the track is explored. In addition, the simulation of the corresponding situations measured during the measurement tests has been performed. The simulated and measured vibration levels, during the pass-by of the wheels with different surface default, are compared and discussed.
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https://pastel.archives-ouvertes.fr/pastel-00628346
Contributor : Virginie Delavaud <>
Submitted on : Sunday, October 2, 2011 - 6:22:56 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, July 3, 2019 - 10:48:04 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Tuesday, January 3, 2012 - 2:20:57 AM

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Virginie Delavaud. Modélisation temporelle de l'interaction roue/rail pour une application au bruit de roulement ferroviaire. Vibrations [physics.class-ph]. ENSTA ParisTech, 2011. Français. ⟨pastel-00628346⟩

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