Abstract : In order to create white light, a blue diode can be associated with phosphors, which convert a part of the blue light to a visible light presenting a lower energy. Usually, micron size phosphors are used as down-converter: the reference phosphor for this application is the doped oxide YAG:Ce. The phosphor size is larger than the wavelength, making the converter layer scatter, which helps to extract the emitted light outside of the high refractive index layer. Nevertheless, this extraction is not well controlled and leads to energy losses. We aim at diminishing these losses associated with scattering by using converter layers based on nanoparticles instead of micron size phosphors. In order to control the extraction of the light that is guided in the non diffusive converter layer, the dielectric microstructure of the matrix which contains the phosphors nanoparticles must be optimized. First, we demonstrate on model layers, consisting in a sol-gel matrix doped with molecular emitters, the ability to extract the light guided in a luminescent layer with an appropriated periodic patterning of its surface. A 10 factor has been obtained at small angles, which corresponds to a 5 factor when integrating over all angles. Then, we develop YAG:Ce nanoparticles with optimized optical properties. A protected annealing process is employed, which allows improving the photostability and the quantum yield of the nanoparticles, while still preserving their small size and their good dispersion state. Finally, particles are incorporated in transparent layers in order to create converter layers, which then have been deposited on white LEDs.