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Impact de la température sur les propriétés mécaniques et acoustiques des roches concernées par la production en SAGD, lors de l'injection de vapeur dans les réservoirs d'huile lourde

Abstract : The steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) has been successfully used to enhance the recovery of heavy oil in Western Canada and Eastern Venezuela basins. Temperature, pressure and pore fluid variations during SAGD operations induce complex changes in the. properties of the heavy oil sand reservoir. This dissertation focuses on the geomechanical and acoustic behaviours of oil sand and how they change under various temperature, pressure and pore fluid conditions. Both natural oil sands samples and reconstituted samples were tested in this research program. Several experimental techniques have been used to characterize the materials including X-Ray tomography, X-ray microtomography, cryomicroscopy, NMR. Natural oil sands samples, characterized by high permeability, high porosity and an interlocked structure have been extracted from the estuarine McMurray Formation in Athabasca (Alberta, Canada). Reconstituted samples, made up of slightly cemented Fontainebleau sand, have been considered as possible analogues of the natural oil sands. Tests have been carried out in high pressure oedometer cells, in an isotropic pressure cell and in a new high temperature triaxial cell. The various geomechanical and thermal tests have been carried out to better understand the thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of natural oil sands and of reconstituted samples. The parameters investigated were the thermal dilatation, the bulk compressibility (under oedometric and isotropic loading) and the shear strength. The acoustic measurements (P and S-wave velocities, attenuations and dynamic modules, etc.) performed on natural oil sands and reconstituted samples showed the importance of the saturating fluids properties, mainly through viscosity. Bitumen has a viscoelastic behaviour with a non-negligible shear modulus that depends strongly on temperature and frequency and that allows shear wave propagation. The theoretical approach of Ciz and Shapiro (2007), that accounts for the effects of the shear modulus of the viscous fluid and generalizes the Biot – Gassmann equation, has been validated by our tests. The model takes into account the dispersive aspects and allows the results obtained in the laboratory with ultrasonic frequencies to be extrapolated to seismic frequencies. Velocities Vp and Vs decrease with the steam invasion. Changes are small but can be detected by 4D seismic
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Dinh Hong Doan. Impact de la température sur les propriétés mécaniques et acoustiques des roches concernées par la production en SAGD, lors de l'injection de vapeur dans les réservoirs d'huile lourde. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris-Est, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PEST1077⟩. ⟨pastel-00657493⟩

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