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Recherche et identification de traces d'explosifs sur des prélèvements après attentat. Application de l'électrophorèse capillaire à cette problématique

Abstract : After explosion, investigations have to be carried out to identify the composition of explosive charge used, but from an analytical point of view, this identification is frequently intricate . In effet, explosive residues are often present in trace amount in various and complex matrices. This is why it is important to dispose of efficient and fast analytical tools. This work firstly consisted in the development of three capillary electrophoresis methods in order to analyze (i) inorganic anions with high ionic strength and chromate based-backgound electrolyte (BGE), then (ii) inorganic cations with a capillary modified by a double ionic layer and guanidinium based-BGE, and finally (iii) simultaneously inorganic anions and cations that are specific of residues collected after explosion caused by acid-aluminum mixture. The second part of this work was dedicated to the CE analysis of carbohydrates, compounds which can be used in homemade explosive charges. A highly alkaline NaOH based-BGE, allowed the separation but also the detection of carbohydrates via a photochemical reaction taking place in the detection window. According to our hypothesis, the detected absorbing compound was under the malonaldehyde form or related compound. A separation of 9 carbohydrates in a separation time inferior to 20 min was finally optimized with a multivariate approach and a desirability analysis. This method was then validated et applied to, for example, the analyses of real samples collected after a simulation of kamikaze attack. Finally, the development of CE method for the analysis of hydrogen peroxide, due to its complexation with borate ions, was carried out. Hydrogen peroxide is used in the peroxide based-explosives and its analysis might open up new horizons in the field of peroxide based-explosive CE analysis. All the developped methods were validated and successfully applied to real samples. Capillary electrophoresis also appears as a powerful technique, complementary to ionic chromatography or thin layer chromatography.
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Cédric Sarazin. Recherche et identification de traces d'explosifs sur des prélèvements après attentat. Application de l'électrophorèse capillaire à cette problématique. Chimie inorganique. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2011. Français. ⟨pastel-00657517⟩

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