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Contribution à l'évaluation des impacts environnementaux des quartiers

Grégory Herfray 1
1 CEP/Paris
CEP - Centre Énergétique et Procédés
Abstract : Life Cycle Assessment has been applied to evaluate environmental impacts of urban settlements, on a time span permitting the integration in the analysis of building and demolition phases. To avoid pollution displacement, this method takes into account impacts generated by the settlement in other locations, regarding for example materials or electricity production. Compared to the building scale, the settlement scale offers supplementary degrees of freedom for eco-design by integrating the interactions between components and the possible share of infrastructure (heating network, locale energy production, parking...). The environmental evaluation of the complex system formed by a settlement needs to understand its functioning. The work presented here aims to contribute to the development of knowledge in this goal, by using numerical simulation. A settlement is considered as a system composed of various elements, interacting at different scales so that multi-scale modeling is used. Among these interactions, in the settlement but also between the studied system and its background, the high dynamic variation of the characteristics of electricity production and consumption requires a detailed analysis: hourly variation of impacts is then considered, instead of yearly average values generally used. The simplification of databases structure facilitates data collection, upon which is based the calculation of indicators. The consequences of these simplified hypotheses on LCA results have been analyzed. Finally, these developments have been implemented, based on existing tools, and applicated on a case study.
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  • HAL Id : pastel-00658220, version 1

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Grégory Herfray. Contribution à l'évaluation des impacts environnementaux des quartiers. Ingénierie de l'environnement. École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ENMP0047⟩. ⟨pastel-00658220⟩

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