. Bi, Cu based alloy cladding on Mild steel) soft on hard 4.3 Bi-material Forgeability Tests In the substrate, the solution of the equation 4

A. References and . Handbook, Forming and Forging, Forging of Carbon and Alloy Steels, pp.470477-104, 1993.

A. Handbook and I. , Surface Engineering for Corrosion and Wear Resistance, p.64, 2001.

A. Handbook and I. , Surface Hardening of Steels, chap. 11, p.97, 2002.

S. Babu, J. Elmer, S. David, and M. Quintana, In situ observations of non-equilibrium austenite formation during weld solidication of an fe-c-almn low-alloy steel, Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, pp.811821-99, 2002.

A. W. Batchelor, L. N. Lam, and M. Chandrasekaran, Materials Degradation and Its Control by Surface Engineering, pp.54-70, 2002.

D. G. Bhat, Coatings Technology Fundamentals, Testing and processing Techniques. Taylor and Francis Group, p.58, 2007.

J. M. Blocher, Structure/property/process relationships in chemical vapor deposition cvd Advance welding and robotic system, tech Tips,It's All About The Angles, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, vol.11, p.85, 1974.

E. Buchanan, Solidication and microstructural characterisation of iron-chromium based hardfaced coatings deposited by smaw and electric arc spraying, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol.203, pp.36383646-63, 2009.

X. Cao, M. Jahazi, J. Fournier, and M. Alain, Optimization of bead spacing during laser cladding of ze41a-t5 magnesium alloy castings. journal of materials processing technology, pp.322331-94, 2008.

Y. Cao, S. Zhu, X. Liang, and W. Wang, Overlapping model of beads and curve tting of bead section for rapid manufacturing by robotic mag welding process, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, vol.27, issue.94, pp.645-117, 2011.

J. Charles, F. Crane, and F. Justin, Selection and Use of Engineering Materials, p.57, 1989.

K. Chiu, F. Cheng, and H. Man, Laser cladding of austenitic stainless steel using NiTi strips for resisting cavitation erosion, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol.402, issue.1-2, pp.126-134, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.msea.2005.04.013

R. Deuis, J. Yellup, and C. Subramanian, Metal-matrix composite coatings by PTA surfacing, Composites Science and Technology, vol.58, issue.2, pp.299309-102, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0266-3538(97)00131-0

G. Deyev and D. Deyev, Surface Phenomena in Fusion Welding Processes, p.100, 2006.
DOI : 10.1201/9781420036299

D. Oliveira, A. Da-silva, P. Vilar, and R. , Microstructural features of consecutive layers of stellite 6 deposited by laser cladding, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol.153, issue.79, p.95, 2002.

J. Domblesky, F. F. Kraft, J. Domblesky, F. Kraft, B. Druecke et al., Metallographic evaluation of welded forging preforms Welded preforms for forging, Journal of Materials Processing Technology Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol.191, issue.111, pp.141-149, 2006.

C. Doumanidis and Y. M. Kwak, Multivariable adaptive control of the bead prole geometry in gas metal arc welding with thermal scanning. International journal of pressure vessels and piping, pp.251262-95, 2002.

S. Ettaqi, L. Langlois, and R. Bigot, Cobalt-based superalloy layers deposited on X38CrMoV5 steel base metal by explosion cladding process, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol.202, issue.14, pp.3306-3315, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2007.12.008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00733915

D. Gabriel, Contribution à l'optimisation des revêtements des moules de fonderie application aux outillages de coulée centrifuge, p.102, 2004.

A. Gebert and B. Bouaifi, Modern Surface Technology, chap, p.102, 2006.

P. Gilles, W. El-ahmar, and J. F. Jullien, Robustness analyses of numerical simulation of fusion welding NeT-TG1 application: ???Single weld-bead-on-plate???, gInternational Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, pp.312-73, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijpvp.2008.11.012

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00938585

T. Harris and E. Priebe, Forming and Forging, Forging of Stainless Steel, p.109, 1993.

T. Harris and E. Priebe, Forming and forging processes, Forging of Stainless Steel. ASM International. 95, p.101, 1993.

S. Honma and K. Yasuda, Study of semi-automatic tig welding, Welding International, vol.18, pp.450455-75, 2004.

T. Howes, A. Illiberi, B. Kniknie, J. Van-deelen, H. Steijvers et al., Explosive welding, twi knowledge summary The welding Institute,UK. xvii Industrial high- rate(14nm/s)deposition of low resistive and transparent znox :al lms on glass, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, pp.71-102, 2001.

C. John and J. Damian, Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of stainless steels, p.111, 2005.

T. Kannan and N. Murugan, Prediction of ferrite number of duplex stainless steel clad metals using rsm. The Welding Journal, p.99, 2006.

T. Kannan and J. Yoganandh, Eect of process parameters on clad bead geometry and its shape relationships of stainless steel claddings deposited by gmaw, Int J Adv Manuf Technology, vol.93, issue.146, p.154, 2010.

K. Rafi, H. Janaki-ram, G. Phanikumar, G. Prasad-rao, and K. , Friction surfaced tool steel (H13) coatings on low carbon steel: A study on the effects of process parameters on coating characteristics and integrity, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol.205, issue.1, pp.232-242, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2010.06.052

I. Khan, Welding Science and technology, 2007.

S. J. Kim, Y. M. Oh, and J. G. Kim, Fe-based hardfacing alloy. United States Patent Publication, p.97, 2005.

R. Klueh and J. King, Austenitic stainless steel-ferritic steel weld joint failures, Welding Journal, pp.302311-100, 1982.

H. Krappitz, Modern Surface Technology, chap. 16, 239241, p.65, 2006.

B. Leduey, E. Galand, E. Bauné, and C. Bonnet, Improvement of the welder's environment through consumable product development. Tech. rep., Competence: The technical journal of Oerlikon welding and cutting expertise, www.oerlikon-welding.com. vii, 81 Eects of copper addition on microstructure and strength of the hybrid laser-tig welded joints between magnesium alloy and mild steel, Journal of Materials Science, vol.44, pp.57255731-93, 2007.

P. M. Martin, Deposition Technologies, 2010.

L. Maurice, E. Glenn, and C. Craig, Fatigue design of aluminum components and structures, p.93, 1996.

P. Modenesi, Statistical modeling of narrow gap mas metal arc welding process, p.91, 1990.

Y. Naidich, V. Zhuravlev, I. Gab, B. Kostyuk, V. Krasovskyy et al., Liquid metal wettability and advanced ceramic brazing, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol.28, issue.4, pp.717728-68, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2007.07.021

J. Norrish and I. Richardson, Back to basics: Metal transfer mechanisms . Welding and Metal Fabrication, pp.1722-73, 1988.

D. Olson, Prediction of austenitic weld metal microstructure and properties, Welding Journal, vol.64, pp.281295-100, 1985.

P. Palani and N. Murugan, Sensitivity analysis for process parameters in cladding of stainless steel by ux cored arc welding, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol.8, issue.146, pp.90100-154, 2006.

P. Panjan, M. Cekada, R. Kirn, and M. Sokovic, Improvement of die-casting tools with duplex treatment, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol.180, issue.181, pp.561565-61, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2003.10.119

K. Parker, Cladding with high power diode lasers, p.62, 2011.

G. Pradeep, A. Ramesh, B. Prasad, S. Pratihar, M. Turski et al., A review paper on hardfacing processes and materials Neutron diraction residual stress measurements in a 316l stainless steel bead-on-plate weld specimen, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, vol.2, issue.86, pp.65076510-57, 2009.

D. Rajeev and K. Radovan, Automated torch path planning using polygon subdivision for solid freeform fabrication based on welding, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, vol.23, issue.93, p.94, 2004.

A. Ramirez and J. Lippold, High temperature behavior of Ni-base weld metal, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol.380, issue.1-2, pp.259-271, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.msea.2004.03.074

N. Rao, G. Reddy, and S. Nagarjuna, Weld overlay cladding of high strength low alloy steel with austenitic stainless steel-structure and properties, Materials and Design, vol.32, pp.24962506-80, 2011.

P. Rao, O. Gupta, S. Murty, and A. Koteswara-rao, Eect of process parameters and mathematical model for the prediction of bead geometry in pulsed gma welding, Int.J of Adv Manufacturing Technology, vol.146, pp.45-496505, 2009.

A. L. Saf-manual, Guide des produits consommables de soudage pour les procédés Arc, Arc Submergé et à la amme. Air liquid Welding, p.92, 1996.

P. A. Schweitzer, Metallic Materials, Physical, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties, p.109, 2003.

K. Siva, N. Murugan, and R. Logesh, Optimization of weld bead geometry in plasma transferred arc hardfaced austenitic stainless steel plates using genetic algorithm, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.82, issue.7, pp.41-2430, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00170-008-1451-3

E. Springer, A comparison of the properties of coatings produced by laser cladding and conventional methods, p.102, 1992.

M. Sulzer, An introduction to brazing fundamentals, materials, processing, p.67, 2009.

J. Takadoum, Materials and Surface Engineering in Tribology, chap. Materials for Tribology, p.60, 2008.

W. Tillmann and E. Vogli, Modern Surface Technology, pp.53-56, 2006.

E. Toyserkani, A. Khajepour, and S. Corbin, Laser Cladding, 2005.

J. Tusek and M. Suban, Experimental research of the eect of hydrogen in argon as a shielding gas in arc welding of high-alloy stainless steel, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, pp.369376-88, 2000.

J. Tusek and M. Suban, High-productivity multiple-wire submerged-arc welding and cladding with metal-powder addition, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol.133, issue.1-2, pp.207-213, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0924-0136(02)00235-2

A. Van-bennekom and F. Wilke, Comparison between the physical, mechanical and corrosive properties of forged and cast stainless steels, p.183, 2003.

V. Vill, Friction Welding Of Metals American Welding Society. 102 REFERENCES Welding Handbook Welding Handbook, A, p.70, 1962.

K. Weman, Welding Processes Handbook, p.83, 2003.
DOI : 10.1201/9780203499764

G. Xu, M. Kutsuna, Z. Liu, and K. Yamada, Comparison between diode laser and TIG cladding of Co-based alloys on the SUS403 stainless steel, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol.201, issue.3-4, pp.75-76, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.01.040

D. Yu, C. Wang, X. Cheng, and F. Zhang, Microstructure and properties of TiAlSiN coatings prepared by hybrid PVD technology, Thin Solid Films, vol.517, issue.17, pp.49504955-61, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tsf.2009.03.091

L. Zhao and E. Lugscheider, Inuence of the spraying processes on the properties of 316l stainless steel coatings, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol.162, pp.610-63, 2002.