La naissance de l'éco-conception : acteurs, raisonnements, enjeux de pilotage et horizons d'une rationalisation industrielle (1990-2010)

Abstract : The environmental crisis is a major challenge for the twenty-first century capitalism: how companies can indeed become both "green" and competitive? An original response appears during the 1990s among engineers and designers with the practice known as "eco-design", which is now implemented in many large companies and innovative SMEs. This approach, which aims to redesign the goods and services to make them more durable, has brought many innovations such as life cycle analysis (LCA) which introduces a breakthrough in the way of mapping the environmental issues of an object by switching from the territory to the physical life cycle. But what are the strategic horizons involved in this industrial rationalization? Are there different ways to practice eco-design? And if so, what are their rationales and their effects? Based on different methods of investigation (research-interventions, genealogies of professions) and a logic of "prospective of the present time", this thesis shows that eco-design experiences in companies are following two "rational myths" (Hatchuel), the engineers one, from the reasoning of the LCA, and the designers one, based on the critical redesign of user-object relations, rational myths which are themselves connected to two possible strategic horizons. The first is the assessment on the markets: its objective is to instrument "green markets" with prescription devices such as the eco-labels, in which LCA works as a new norm of truth. In this horizon which is marked by rule-based eco-design approaches and competition by environmental standards strategies (e.g. settlement of the eco-label), the LCA engineer appears to be a dominant player. The second horizon is the transformation of the self through tools to optimize or redesign a lifestyle (manuals for sustainable consumers, critical catalogs and fictions of designers). These approaches are here analyzed with Foucault's concept of technologies of the self and Ricoeur's concept of narrative identity. In this horizon where strategy plays as designing scenographies (Aggeri) we find that the designer is carrying out a more radical criticism through more innovative eco-design approaches that change together the identity of objects, markets and individuals. Thus, it is by taking into account the variety of these problematizations that eco-design will be able to provide innovative solutions to the challenges of sustainable development.
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Christophe Abrassart. La naissance de l'éco-conception : acteurs, raisonnements, enjeux de pilotage et horizons d'une rationalisation industrielle (1990-2010). Gestion et management. École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ENMP0091⟩. ⟨pastel-00712974⟩

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