Ordonnancement temps réel dur multiprocesseur tolérant aux fautes appliqué à la robotique mobile

Abstract : In this thesis, we studied the fault-tolerant multiprocessor hard real-time scheduling of non-preemptive strict periodic tasks which could be combined with preemptive tasks. We proposed solutions that we implemented into the SynDEx software, then we tested these solutions on an electric vehicle following. First, we present a state of the art on real-time embedded systems and more specificaly on the classical uniprocesseur and multiprocessor scheduling of preemptive periodic tasks. Since we were interested in critical real-time control applications, sensor/actuators computations and processes control must not have jitter. For these reasons, we also presented a state of the art of the scheduling of non-preemptive strict periodic tasks. Also, we presented a state of the art on fault-tolerance. As we were interested in hardware faults, we presented two types of redundancies: software and hardware. Presently, existing schedulability analyses of non-preemptive strict periodic tasks have low schedulability success ratios, thus we proposed a new schedulability analysis. We first presented a scheduling strategy which consists in scheduling a candidate task whereas a task set is already scheduled. We used this strategy to solve the problem of scheduling harmonic and non-harmonic tasks, and we proposed new schedulability conditions. In order to improve the scheduling success ratio of non-preemptive strict periodic tasks, we proposed to keep some non preemptive strict periodic tasks and to add preemptive periodic tasks which are neither dedicated to input/output nor to control. Then, we studied the multiprocessor scheduling problem using the partitioned approach. In order to solve this problem we proposed three algorithms. The first algorithm performs a uniprocessor schedulability analysis and assigns each task according to a schedulability condition to possibly several processors. The second algorithm transforms the dependent task graph into an unrolled graph where each task is repeated a number of times equal to the ratio between the LCM of all tasks periods and its period. The third algorithm exploits the two precedent algorithms to choose, with a cost function, on which processor it will schedule a task previously assigned to several processors, and it computes the first start times of each task. Then, we extended the multiprocessor schedulability analysis to be tolerant to processor and bus media faults. We proposed an algorithm which transforms the dependent task graph by adding redundant tasks, redundant dependencies, and selecting tasks. The latter allow to choose the redundant task allocated to non faulty processors. We studied separately the processor fault-tolerance problem, the bus fault-tolerant problem, and finally both processor and bus fault-tolerant problem. Finally, we extended the schedulability analysis algorithms, the unrolling algorithm and the scheduling algorithm to be fault-tolerant. Then, we presented the improvements provided to the SynDEx software for the schedulability analysis algorithm, the scheduling algorithm and the fault-tolerance algorithm. Finally, we conducted some experiments on the electric vehicle following called CyCab. We modified the hardware architecture of the CyCab to integrate dsPICs microcontrolers, and we tested dsPICs and CAN buses fault-tolerant on the CyCabs following.
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Mohamed Marouf. Ordonnancement temps réel dur multiprocesseur tolérant aux fautes appliqué à la robotique mobile. Autre [cs.OH]. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ENMP0017⟩. ⟨pastel-00720934⟩

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