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Theses

Plasticity of winter wheat architecture modulated by sowing date and plant population density and its effect on Septoria tritici epidemics

Abstract : Agronomic practices modify crop architecture in ways that may facilitate or hamper disease development. The processes involved are complex and mechanistic models simulating plant-pathogen interaction should help clarifying them. Virtual Plants, i.e. models in which the three-dimensional structure of the plant is explicitly described, appear specially promising to express the effects of the plant architecture on the epidemic development. The objective of this study is to examine the ability to simulate the effect of plant architecture on disease development using a Virtual Plant model.The work focuses on the pathosystem wheat-Septoria tritici, in which architecture plays an important role because spores of Septoria are propagated from infected leaves to upper healthy leaves by rain splash. We build on a pre-existing model of Septoria epidemics, Septo3D. Wheat architecture was examined for a range of sowing date and density treatments. Differences of phyllochron between treatments were in a range sufficient to likely modify epidemic development; they were well represented by a descriptive model depending on photoperiod and final leaf number. A detailed description of architectural variables at the organ and canopy scale provided an original and comprehensive documentation of the plastic response of wheat, which was used for parameterising the wheat description in Septo3D. Overall, the investigated treatments resulted in strong differences in the time course of vegetation density. Septoria dynamics were monitored in a subset of three treatments of contrasted densities. Simulated disease kinetics were consistent with field measurements. Although, the approach needs further validation, results support that virtual plant modelling provides new insights into the processes and plant traits that impact epidemics. We conclude with prospects for further improvements and applications.
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Rim Baccar. Plasticity of winter wheat architecture modulated by sowing date and plant population density and its effect on Septoria tritici epidemics. Agricultural sciences. AgroParisTech, 2011. English. ⟨NNT : 2011AGPT0031⟩. ⟨pastel-00741439⟩

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