Spéciation du mercure dans les produits de la pêche par double dilution isotopique et chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à un spectromètre de masse à plasma induit (GC-ICP-MS)

Abstract : Mercury is a contaminant which is found in all compartments of the environment and to which human beings are directly exposed when eating food. Government agencies assess the safety of food products by using total mercury concentrations. However, its toxicity depends on the species absorbed (among which methylmercury is its most toxic form). Therefore, the analysis of speciation, i.e. detection and quantification of different chemical forms of this element, is of high interest. The main objective of this project was to develop and validate, under quality assurance, a sensitive and highly accurate method, based on the use of isotope dilution. This method will then be applied as a reference method by the agency for speciation analysis of mercury in seafood, in order to better assess risks to the consumer. The first part of this work focused on the biogeochemical cycle of mercury and the state of art of the various methods of sample preparation, separation and quantification of Hg in biological matrices in order to make analytical choices. Thus, mercury compounds (methyl mercury and inorganic mercury) were determined by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and quantified by isotope dilution. The second part of the work was dedicated to the optimization of the method of sample preparation and the quantification technique. The work was made on different certified reference materials and showed that changes of the natural distribution of the sample could occur during the extraction step. Therefore, isotopic tracers had been added to the sample before this step. Mercury species were extracted by a solid-liquid extraction by using a digiPREP and derivated by propylation using tétrapropylborate the sodium and a rotary agitation. Data were treated by simple and multiple isotope dilution. Achieved concentrations were similar for all analyzed matrices. Results showed that inter-species transformation hardly occurred during the analytical procedure. This was the reason why the use of two isotopic tracers for quantification by simple isotope dilution was kept. To end, the method was validated for the speciation of mercury in seafood, in respect with the French norms AFNOR NF V03-110 of 1998 and 2010. Finally, the work ended with the applicability of the validated method for mercury speciation analysis in real biological samples and our participation in several inter-laboratory proficiency tests organized by the CSL-FAPAS on a sample of tuna and by the IRMM on the material IMEP-109 (lobster).
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Stéphanie da Fonseca Clemens. Spéciation du mercure dans les produits de la pêche par double dilution isotopique et chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à un spectromètre de masse à plasma induit (GC-ICP-MS). Sociologie. AgroParisTech, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011AGPT0050⟩. ⟨pastel-00753697⟩

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