Low‐Temperature & Transfer‐Free Graphene Growth: Process and Underlying Mechanisms

Abstract : In this thesis work, we developed a new paradigm in the field of graphene growth, based on PECVD and Ion Implantation techniques. Exposure of the metal film to highly reactive plasma introduces carbon atoms at and near the film surface; performing this at elevated temperature makes the carbon atoms to diffuse throughout the film.After adapting this method to graphene growth, it delivered graphene layers on Ni at 450 °C. Moreover, in addition to the top‐surface layer, we obtained with this technique another graphene layer inbetween Ni and the underlying insulating substrate (SiO2 or glass). That second graphene layer placing itself directly on the insulating (functional) substrate, we developed a simple process for using it directly as a sensor without transfer. We were the first to propose carbon ion implantation for supplying carbon atoms to the Ni layer, prior to obtaining graphene upon annealing. By separating introduction and annealing, this technique allowed us to isolate important factors of a heat treatment. We were thus able, by using this method, to get fundamental insight into the graphene growth mechanisms. Due to fast diffusion, the final carbon distribution in a Ni film depends on the details of the annealing treatment that is applied during or after carbon has been introduced. We show in particular that two kinds of graphitic materials are obtained after a given treatment: one under the form of single crystals of few‐layer graphene/graphite, grown during the high temperature plateau, and a second under the form of nanocrystalline few‐layer graphene, grown during cooling.Finally, on the graphene grown by PECVD directly on glass at low temperature, we thus developed a humidity sensor, by direct electrode printing. Beyond this proof of concept, we need to further investigate growth mechanisms and annealing conditions for the development of various transfer‐free, low‐temperature, graphene applications.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 3, 2012 - 2:17:26 PM
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Chang Seok Lee. Low‐Temperature & Transfer‐Free Graphene Growth: Process and Underlying Mechanisms. Materials Science [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Ecole Polytechnique X, 2012. English. ⟨pastel-00760085⟩

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