Variations spatio-temporelles de la réponse au climat des essences forestières tempérées : quantification du phénomène par approche dendroécologique et influence de la stratégie d'échantillonnage

Abstract : In temperate conditions, studies dealing with spatio-temporal instabilities in climate sensitivity of forest tree species are scarce and often led at local and regional scales, which prevents from drawing global responses to the environment and its variations. The dendrochronological dataset merging (more than 4500 cored trees) allowed analyzing the growth pattern of seven major European species (Quercus petraea, Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Pinus uncinata) in various climatic contexts (oceanic to subalpine) and over the 20th century. This thesis also investigated the climate sensitivity modulation by local ecological conditions. Climate-growth relationships were studied through the calculation of correlation functions. Regardless of the species and the ecological context, summer drought is the main growth limiting factor (but not the unique one), followed by previous autumn drought and winter frost. Spatial variability in response to climate depends more heavily on pluviometry than temperature, decreasing amount of precipitation leading to increasing sensitivities to summer and previous autumn droughts and also winter frost. This general pattern is modulated the local ecological conditions, with especially a lower sensitivity to drought on deep soils. Species-specific responses to climate are mainly evidenced out of the growing season (November to March), even if correlations are rarely significant. The growth of conifers is generally enhanced by warm late winters (February to April), while that of broadleaves is negatively correlated to temperatures and positively to precipitation in December and January. These between-species differences turn out to be stable along the climatic gradients. Lastly, the temporal analysis evidences strong climate-growth relationships instabilities over the last century. The way and the magnitude of these variations are rather homogenous along the ecological gradients, but display low synchronicity with climatic instabilities (autumn, winter and spring) and are ecophysiologically difficult to explain (summer). Such incoherencies between climatic trends and climate sensitivity trends could be related to absence of a single growth limiting factor under temperate context, since tree-ring is under the control of both winter frost and summer (and autumn) drought. They could also result from non-climatic phenomenon, such as the biological the age-related biological effect or progressive changes in forest management. The analyses of spatio-temporal variations in sensitivity climate question on the precision of the climate-growth relationships, most of the time estimated with correlation functions. Indeed, inter-plot, inter-region and inter-period comparisons of responses often highlight differences in correlations which could be of the same magnitude than that of the precision related to the investigated sample. We thus propose to quantify the effect of the sample size (number of cored trees) and characteristics (number of plots, number of trees per plot, sampled social statuses) on the accuracy of the estimation of both the environmental signal estimation contained in the growth chronology and the correlation functions. This analysis also investigates the modulation of such effects by the species-specific functional traits and the strength of the environmental growth limitation. [...] Last and final summary in the thesis.
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Pierre Merian. Variations spatio-temporelles de la réponse au climat des essences forestières tempérées : quantification du phénomène par approche dendroécologique et influence de la stratégie d'échantillonnage. Biologie végétale. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0011⟩. ⟨pastel-00764526⟩

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