Modélisation multi échelles de l'impact du trafic routier sur la qualité de l'air

Abstract : Roadway traffic contributes to atmospheric pollution near roads, with pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particles (PM) along with some volatile organic compounds (VOC), as well as at larger spatial scales (urban and regional background pollution) with pollutants formed in the atmosphere such as ozone (O3) and the secondary fraction of PM. Because of interactions between local and background pollutants, it is desirable to combine into a single computational tool, regional and local scale models. This multi-scale modeling method has been widely used to simulate the impact of chimney emissions (point sources) with a sub-grid treatment of plume or puff models instead within a 3-dimensional Eulerian model. However, such a method is not applicable to a road network because of the prohibitive computations associated with the line source discretization into a set of point sources. Thus, a new multi-scale modeling method was developed, which treats the plumes emitted from line sources as sub-grid components of an Eulerian model. First, an improved formulation of a Gaussian plume model for line sources was developed. This new model was then subject to a detailed evaluation with near roadway measurements along with other Gaussian models. The incorporation of the Gaussian plume model into an Eulerian model (Polair3D) was implemented as part of the modeling platform Polyphemus. The performance (computational effectiveness and precision) of the new multi-scale model (Plume-in-Grid) was evaluated and compared to those of a stand-alone Gaussian and Eulerian models. The multi-scale model treats nitrogen oxide (NOx) chemistry along with major VOC. The multi-scale treatment has an important effect on the concentration of some pollutants in terms of local and urban background pollution
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Régis Briant. Modélisation multi échelles de l'impact du trafic routier sur la qualité de l'air. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1115⟩. ⟨pastel-00765205⟩

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