Impact de nanoparticules de TiO2 et de nanotubes de carbone sur les végétaux

Abstract : The field of the nanotechnology exponentially increased during the last ten years. Intensive production of nanomaterials would lead to their release in the environment. Plants are one of the most sensitive organisms since they are at the interface between soil, water and air. Moreover, they represent a point of entry into the food chain. This study deals with the impact of TiO2 nanoparticle and carbon nanotube on plants, specifically on wheat and rapeseed. The physico-chemistry of nanomaterials has been deeply characterized.We prove that TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes are internalized in roots and transferred to shoot of both wheat and rapeseed upon hydroponics exposure. TiO2 nanoparticles can also be internalized upon exposure in soil and even after an aerial contamination. TiO2 nanoparticles are accumulated in plants up to few hundred mg Ti/kg DM, their crystal phase is not modified and they do not dissolve during their transfer inside plants. CNT are less accumulated, up to few hundred µg NTC/kg DM, and seem to be altered by their transfer to and though plants.The nanomaterials we studied have very limited impact on plant development and physiology. One test out of eight has shown modulation after nanomaterial exposure: root elongation was induced when exposed to very small of both nanomaterials. Finally, we show that the nominal diameter of nanomaterials is negatively correlated with their internalization, transfer to shoot and induction of root elongation: the finest the nanomaterial, the highest their accumulation and impact on plant development.
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Camille Larue. Impact de nanoparticules de TiO2 et de nanotubes de carbone sur les végétaux. Sciences agricoles. AgroParisTech, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011AGPT0065⟩. ⟨pastel-00765312⟩

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