Caractérisation des aérosols organiques à Beyrouth, Liban

Abstract : The chemical composition of PM2.5 includes both organic and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds, which constitute a significant fraction of the PM2.5 mass, can be emitted directly as primary aerosol from sources such as fossil-fuel combustion, biomass burning, and natural biogenic emissions, or formed in the atmosphere via chemical reactions leading to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. SOA, which account for 20 – 80 % of total organic aerosol, are currently a major source of uncertainty in air quality modeling. The identification and quantification of the chemical composition of the organic fraction of PM2.5 and its source apportionment are of great interest, especially in the Middle East region where data on organic aerosols are currently lacking. Lebanon, a small developing country in the Middle East region located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean basin represents a good example for characterizing organic aerosols in this region. To address this issue, the air quality in Beirut (the capital city of Lebanon) was investigated with a focus on organic aerosols. First, an air pollutant emission inventory was developed for Lebanon with a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and for Beirut with a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km. The results obtained show that the road transport sector is the major contributor to carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions, whereas fossil fuel-fired power plants and large industrial plants are the major contributors to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary particulate matter (PM) emissions. Then, two intensive 15-day measurement campaigns were conducted at a semi-urban site located in a Beirut suburb to characterize air pollutant concentrations. The first measurement campaign took place in July 2011 and the second in February 2012. Measurements included PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentrations as well as a molecular characterization of organic aerosols. Using these data, a source apportionment of organic aerosols was conducted for summer and winter. In summer, biogenic precursors such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the major source of OC due to intensive solar radiation and high ambient temperatures that promote biogenic VOC emissions and photo-oxidation reactions. In winter, biomass burning was the major source of organic aerosols because of the intensive use of wood burning for heating. Finally, air pollutant concentrations in Beirut were simulated for July 2011 with the Polyphemus/Polair3D chemical-transport model (CTM). The emission inventory mentioned above was used as input to the model. Meteorological simulations were conducted with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) using different configurations and the configuration leading to the best agreement with the observations was used to drive the air quality simulations. The simulated air pollutant concentrations were compared to the measured concentrations collected during the summer measurement campaign. The results show that the model reproduces satisfactorily the concentrations of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and the major components of PM2.5. The differences obtained between the modeled and measured air pollutants concentrations are due in part to uncertainties in input data. Future studies should address the reduction of uncertainties such as those of the emission inventory. In addition, measurement campaigns involving several sites are needed to better characterize air pollution in Beirut and provide a more complete database to evaluate simulated air pollutant concentrations
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Antoine Waked. Caractérisation des aérosols organiques à Beyrouth, Liban. Autre. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1169⟩. ⟨pastel-00765845⟩

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