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Etude du système de communication cellulaire NprR-NprX au sein du groupe Bacillus cereus

Abstract : In sporulating Bacillus, major processes like virulence gene expression and sporulation are regulated by communication systems involving signaling peptides and regulators of the RNPP family. In this work, we investigated the role of one such regulator, NprR, in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group. This work can be divided into three complementary parts.The first part consisted to demonstrate that NprR is involved in a quorum-sensing system. We showed that NprR is a transcriptional regulator whose activity depends on the NprX signalling peptide. In association with NprX, NprR activates the transcription of an extracellular protease gene (nprA) during the first stage of the sporulation process. We demonstrated that the NprX peptide is secreted, processed and then reimported within the bacterial cell by two oligopeptide permease systems (Opp and Npp). Once inside the cell, the mature form of NprX, presumably the SKPDIVG heptapeptide, directly binds to NprR allowing nprA transcription. The second part was to explore the function of NprR during the infectious cycle of B. thuringiensis (Bt). We showed that NprR is active after death of the insect and allows Bt to survive in the cadavers as vegetative cells. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that NprR regulates at least 41 genes encoding degradative enzymes or involved in the synthesis of a non-ribosomal peptide named kurstakin. The degradative enzymes include chitinases, proteases and lipases. The corresponding genes are specifically expressed after host death suggesting that Bt has an active necrotrophic lifestyle in the cadaver. We showed that kurstakin is essential for Bt survival during necrotrophic development. It is required for swarming mobility and biofilm formation, presumably through a pore forming activity. A nprR deficient mutant does not develop necrotrophically and does not sporulate efficiently in the cadaver. Altogether, our results show that necrotrophism is a highly regulated mechanism essential for the Bt infectious cycle, contributing to horizontal transmission. Finally, the last part of my PhD consisted to study the regulation of nprR and nprX expression. We showed that the nprR-nprX genes are cotranscribed from a sigma A-dependent promoter (PA) located upstream from nprR. The transcription from PA starts at the onset of the stationary phase and is controlled by two transcriptional regulators: CodY and PlcR. The nutritional repressor CodY binds a DNA target site upstream from PA and represses nprR-nprX transcription during the exponential growth phase. At the onset of the stationary phase, the negative control of CodY is relieved and PlcR activates nprR-nprX transcription by binding a PlcR box located upstream from PA. We showed that nprX is also transcribed independently of the nprR transcription from two promoters, PH and PE, dependent on sigma-H and sigma-E, respectively. Both promoters ensure nprX transcription during late stationary phase and sporulation while transcription from PA is complete. This study highlights the key role played by CodY, PlcR and Spo0A in nprR-nprX transcription.
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https://pastel.archives-ouvertes.fr/pastel-00770265
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Submitted on : Monday, January 7, 2013 - 12:18:52 PM
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Thomas Dubois. Etude du système de communication cellulaire NprR-NprX au sein du groupe Bacillus cereus. Sciences agricoles. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0010⟩. ⟨pastel-00770265⟩

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