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Approche biophysique des processus de développement et de croissance des couverts végétaux : Interaction avec le stress hydrique et optimisation des pratiques culturales en climat méditerranéen

Abstract : This study presents a biophysical model of crop functioning can translate the dynamics of the evolution of any cover crops under different abiotic conditions of the environment (temperature, water and radiation), soil and climate. The approach developed for monitoring the kinetics of growth and development of crops is very close to the physiological reality of their functioning but also those linked to human intervention which is then compatible with the scale of our modeling. While the use of a simple linear law of action of the temperature bay patterns crop functioning model can take part in the effect of the action of temperature on a fairly limited temperature range of plant species active, the original approach which was adopted in this model allows the use of a true law of action of temperature on various biological processes associated with the development and growth, valid over the entire temperature range biologically active. Also, this approach very generic allows to follow the kinetics of the speed of evolution of all entities of a plant, no matter the species or variety, and work at any scale of time (days, hours). The adaptation of the logistic model (widely used to describe biological processes) to the physiological context of the plants has a quite original description of the dynamics of growth in terms of development, taking into account at any time the effect of stress the environment and feedback on the dynamics of cover change. The regulation of growth was possible in this model of development-growth through the modulation of its rate of growth (a process most sensitive to stress) according to two of the most important stress in plants, water and radiation. From a small number of parameters easily affordable in the bibliography, it is possible to characterize the dynamic evolution of all types of vegetation in soil conditions and climate varied. Coupled with the water balance model Bilhyna, it is capable of operating in different situations of the environment, including limiting rained conditions, and managing the water shortage with possible contributions from supplemental irrigation or limited needs throughout growth, then incorporates the feedback of environmental constraints on the dynamics of the cover crop evolution. To study our model, we compared initially exits the model law action of temperature on development rates to the experimental results on flax, corn and wheat from several studies of authors known and fairly drawn from the bibliography. Comparing the results-model measures gave very satisfactory results. We have, in a second part, faced the outputs of the coupled biophysical model bilhyna to experimental measurements we have done in the field over a period of five years, and on two crops: sorghum and wheat. We have followed the evolution of the dynamics of these cover crop through their three components (LAI, canopy height and depth of its roots) as well as stocks of soil water during the entire period of growth cultures. The results of the comparison of model outputs with experimental measurements was quite satisfactory. Last and final summary in the thesis.
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Samir Meridja. Approche biophysique des processus de développement et de croissance des couverts végétaux : Interaction avec le stress hydrique et optimisation des pratiques culturales en climat méditerranéen. Sciences agricoles. AgroParisTech, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011AGPT0057⟩. ⟨pastel-00776775⟩

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