Oxydation du sulfure d'hydrogène par les cellules épithéliales coliques : Une voie métabolique de détoxication et de production d'énergie

Abstract : Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a metabolite produced notably by colonic sulphate-reducing bacteria from alimentary sulphur-containing amino acids, sulfates / sulfites and sulfomucines. At high concentrations, H2S is a toxic gas due to its ability to inhibit cytochome c oxidase, and therefore mitochondrial respiration. In contrast, our study shows that at low concentrations, H2S induces mitochondrial energization in human colonic epithelial cells HT-29 Glc -/+ assigning it a role as the first inorganic oxidative substrate in human cells. In this work, we have determined sulphide concentrations allowing sulphide oxidation/detoxification by HT-29 cells and those which inhibit oxygen consumption. The oxidation of H2S requires cooperation between the "sulphide oxidation unit" and the respiratory chain. The capacity of HT-29 Glc -/+ to oxidize H2S is associated with the presence of transcripts encoding the enzymes constituting the "sulfide oxidation unit": the sulphide quinine reductase (SQR), the sulphur dioxygenase or Ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 (ETHE1) and the thiosulfate sulphur transferase (TST). We demonstrate that the oxidation of H2S takes precedence over the oxidation of carbon substrates. Indeed, our results suggest that electrons from SQR are transferred to the ubiquinone pool at the expense of those originating from the complex I. Our results point out that SQR represents a determinanat factor in the oxidation of H2S. In addition, the detoxification of H2S by HT-29 Glc -/+ cells increases during spontaneous differentiation and differentiation induced by treatment with butyrate. The increase in the detoxification of H2S during the differentiation is associated with an increase of the respiratory reserve pointing out the importance of the respiratory chain as a component of the detoxification function of H2S. In situations of inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase, the capacity of human colon cells to detoxify H2S could be due in part to the presence of a reverse transfer of electrons from the oxidation of H2S to the SQR complex I. In addition to butyrate, zinc, another compound of the colonic lumen has a protective effect against cell toxicity associated with H2S. Lastly, we have shown a decreased expression of the gene encoding an enzyme of the "sulfide oxidation unit" (TST) in the rectum compared to the other segments of human colon. This observation may correspond to different detoxification capacities towards H2S according to the different parts of the human large intestine.
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Sabria Mimoun. Oxydation du sulfure d'hydrogène par les cellules épithéliales coliques : Une voie métabolique de détoxication et de production d'énergie. Alimentation et Nutrition. AgroParisTech, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011AGPT0077⟩. ⟨pastel-00777920⟩

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