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Analyse du transport solide en réseau d’assainissement unitaire par temps de pluie : exploitation de données acquises par les observatoires français en hydrologie urbaine

Abstract : This thesis exploits continuous measurement of rainfall, discharge and turbidity data and the knowledge acquired by three French observatories in urban hydrology, OPUR-Paris, OTHU Lyon and ONEVU-Nantes, to validate and improve knowledge on suspended solids discharges and sources of particles, which are major vectors of contaminants in combined sewer systems. Data from six experimental sites served by a combined sewer system were used: Marais, Quais and Clichy in Paris, Cordon Bleu and Saint-Mihiel in Nantes and Ecully in Lyon. At each site, a long duration databases enabled statistical studies on samples of several tens of rainfall events and dry weather days. This thesis allowed: 1-to assess the representativeness of turbidity to analyze sediments transport in network; 2-to analyze and model concentrations and masses of particles at the scale of rain events; 3-to study the dynamics of fluxes and concentrations at intra-event scale. Results show that turbidity can describe the dynamics of intra-event fluxes and concentrations provided these are expressed in a relative form, normalized by the event mean values. However, these mean values are attached by significant systematic errors induced by variations of the inter-event TSS-turbidity relationship (95% confidence interval about 30% of average). The contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather suspended solids discharges is important but variable (between 20 and 80% of the mass at the outlet depending on the event), including for a site allegedly free of (coarse) sewer deposits. In other words, the problems of silting and contribution from deposits to wet weather pollution are not necessarily related. The other major contribution is from “dry weather” wastewater. In addition, they we made some progress in understanding the lag-time phenomena between hydrograph and pollutograph and the piston effect
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Ali Hannouche. Analyse du transport solide en réseau d’assainissement unitaire par temps de pluie : exploitation de données acquises par les observatoires français en hydrologie urbaine. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1134⟩. ⟨pastel-00786998⟩

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