Prévisions d'ensemble à l'échelle saisonnière : mise en place d'une dynamique stochastique

Abstract : Over the last twenty years, research in ensemble predictions at a seasonal timescale using general circulation models has undergone a considerable development due to the exponential growth rate of computing capacities, the improved model resolution and the introduction of more and more components (ocean, atmosphere, land surface and sea-ice) that have an impact on climate at this time scale. Regardless of these efforts, predicting temperature and precipitation for the upcoming season is a difficult task, not only over mid-latitudes but also over regions subject to high climate risk, like West Africa during the monsoon season. One key to improving predictions is to represent model uncertainties (due to resolution, parametrizations, approximations and model error). The multimodel approach is a well-tried method which consists in pooling members from different individual coupled models into a single superensemble. This approach was undertaken as part of the European Commission funded ENSEMBLES project, and we find that it usually improves seasonal precipitation re-forecasts over several regions of Africa with respect to individual model predictions. The main goal of this thesis is to study another approach to addressing model uncertainty in the global coupled model CNRM-CM5, by adding stochastic perturbations to the dynamics of the atmospheric model ARPEGE-Climat. Our method, called “stochastic dynamics”, consists in adding additive perturbations to the temperature, specific humidity and vorticity fields, thus correcting estimations of model initial tendency errors. In this thesis, two initial tendency error estimation techniques were studied, based on nudging the model towards reference data. They yield different results in terms of re-forecast scores, depending on the regions studied. If the initial tendency error corrections are estimated using an iterative nudging method towards the ERA-Interim reanalysis, seasonal prediction scores over the Northern Hemisphere in winter are significantly improved by drawing random corrections. The 500 hPa geopotential height is also clearly reduced. A re-forecast using “optimal” perturbations drawn within the initial tendency error corrections from the current forecast month shows that useful information at a monthly timescale exists, and could allow significant forecast improvement. The last part of this thesis focuses on the idea of classifying the model perturbations according to its current state during the forecast, in order to take a step closer (if possible) to the improvements noted with these optimal perturbations
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 28, 2013 - 11:32:17 AM
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Lauriane Saunier-Batté. Prévisions d'ensemble à l'échelle saisonnière : mise en place d'une dynamique stochastique. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris-Est, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PEST1001⟩. ⟨pastel-00795478⟩

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