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Dynamique et intensité de biotransformation dans le rumen

Abstract : “Ruminal biotransformation” is a concept aggregating all the reactions occurring in the rumen (degradation, synthesis and conversion). These reactions are driven by three major driving forces: laws of chemical kinetics, thermodynamics and the dynamics of microbial populations. The principal objective of the thesis was to study how a dietary factor (percentage of concentrate in the ration, oil supplementation) can modify rumen function and the ruminal biotransformation of dietary components in terms of pattern and extent. To answer to this question, three approaches were used: an in vivo experiment on mid-lactation goats, two in vitro experiments (with the gas-test method) and the development of a mechanistic model. In vivo biotransformation reactions were assessed by post-feeding measurements or by duodenal flow determination. Further, the relationships between the rumen and the host animal (intake behaviour, metabolism, performance parameters, and milk quality) were studied over a period of 6 weeks. Our results were consistent with previous reports in goats and dairy cows. Animals adapted their intake behaviour in 6 weeks with the high-concentrate diet. As a consequence, modifications of ruminal digestion patterns were observed. Duodenal flow of fatty acids explained the milk fatty acid profile. The in vitro studies gave consistent results with the in vivo study when donor animals were fed the incubated diets. Finally, a mechanistic model of rumen functioning in in vitro devices was developed. It describes specifically the physicochemical laws explaining pH and gas production patterns. This model gives satisfying results and could be integrated to a larger mechanistic model of rumen. Modelling provides a logical framework within which to mathematically integrate all the biotransformation reactions observed in experiments.
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Amélie Serment. Dynamique et intensité de biotransformation dans le rumen. Sciences agricoles. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0045⟩. ⟨pastel-00802657⟩

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