Étude de l'origine de défauts détectés dans des pièces en alliage d'aluminium de la série 7XXX destinées à l'industrie aéronautique

Abstract : The thesis project aims to study the origin of defects detected in 7XXX aluminium alloy components for aeronautical applications.This work was conducted on two different components (A and B) produced by Aubert&Duval using 7050 aluminium alloy ingots produced by Constellium. The choice of these two components is based on a five year industrial production statistical analysis. Component A has a much higher defect rate compared to component B, even though they are produced from the same ingots.This work was conducted according to two research axis:•Thermo-mechanical axis : defects occurred during the material forming as a result of ductile hot damage•Material axis: defects resulted from a pre-existent defect in the raw material that was not closed during forming.The thermo-mechanical axis is based on numerical simulations of the component's forming processes using the Forge® 2009 software. The material axis is based on the experimental characterization of porosity in a model material with high hydrogen content and thus a higher pore density than the industrial material. Small samples of the model material were experimentally forged using an alternating compression test that was designed and developed from the industrial forging process. Theses samples were characterized to describe pore evolution during hot deformation, by the combination of two characterization techniques: High Resolution Ultrasound Control (HRUS) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observations on 2D sections and fracture surfaces. An ultrasound signal processing technique was also developed in order to quantitatively compare two different deformation states using ultrasound control.The results of the numerical simulation of A and B component stamping process showed that the detected defects could not occur by ductile hot damage. Indeed, the stamping process is purely compressive and damage risks are thus very low. Moreover, the defect experimental characterization showed the presence of smooth surface areas very similar to the surface aspect of the rare observed porosity in the raw material. The same smooth aspect characterized the porosity observed in the model material. These results lead to the hypothesis that the detected defects could occur from a pre-existent defect (porosity more precisely) in the raw material. This hypothesis is consistent with the pore behaviour during the experimental hot forging of the model material.The hot forging experiment conducted on the model material, showed that pores tend to flatten as plastic strain increases. SEM observations on rupture surfaces from the highest plastic strain showed the presence of small smooth aspect areas. These areas confirm that some pores are not completely healed during deformation even though the correspondent ultrasound signal is very low. During heat treatment, unhealed pores after deformation seem to be reopened (smooth aspect surface areas) and expanded (ductile areas).
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Siham Agouti. Étude de l'origine de défauts détectés dans des pièces en alliage d'aluminium de la série 7XXX destinées à l'industrie aéronautique. Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ENMP0055⟩. ⟨pastel-00802983⟩

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