Identification des sources d’alkylphénols et de phtalates en milieu urbain : comparaison des rejets à dominante urbaine (domestique) par rapport à des rejets purement industriels

Abstract : Phthalates and alkylphenols are organic molecules generated by the chemical industry, entering the composition of plastics, for phthalates, and detergents for alkylphenols. Their worldwide productions are around 6 million tons and 500,000 tons, respectively. It is now obvious from the concentrations and contents measured in the various environmental compartments that phthalates and alkylphenols are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Indeed, they are found in all environmental compartments (from the atmosphere to the natural environment) at significant levels. These contaminants are also recognized as endocrine disrupting compounds and can cause damages to fauna and flora present in the natural environment. This work has identified levels of wastewater contamination of phthalates and alkylphenols in various environmental compartments in urban areas. Thus, samples taken, during dry weather periods, were used to determine the quality of raw water for global parameters, phthalates and alkylphenols within industrial and domestical discharges as well as the sewer network and a major Parisian sewage treatment plant (Seine Centre, Colombes, 92). These results reflect certain characteristics and disparities of the sewer network, including both high variability of the sampling and the contamination levels by these micropollutants. For industrial discharges, significant disparities have been observed between the different sectors listed (textile manufacturing, surface treatment, metallurgy, pharmaceutical industries, etc.). Overall, the results confirm that household inputs correspond to the first source of contamination in Parisian conurbation. Indeed, the contribution of industrial inputs is less than 5%, for all compounds, whatever the industrial sector. The study of the Parisian sewer network showed some temporal stability of wastewaters in the downstream part. This work however also highlighted disparities and similarities between the sub-watersheds drained by the sewer network. Thus, the northern part of the Parisian network (SDA and CAA) appears to be more contaminated than the Southern part (CAB and SAR).The results obtained for Seine Centre wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) confirms the effectiveness of the treatment processes on the removal on the routine water quality parameters. Additionally, the results on the elimination of phthalates and alkylphenols in sewage treatment plant (yields above 83% for all compounds) confirm that even if WWTP are initially not designed for reducing and/or eliminating micropollutants, they proceed significantly. During primary treatment, physicochemical lamellar clarification underlined the removal of hydrophobic pollutants such as DEHP, NP, DnBP and BBP. During the secondary treatment, biofiltration highlighted its effectiveness in eliminating all pollutants, as well as volatile compounds (DEP) and other contaminants
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Alexandre Bergé. Identification des sources d’alkylphénols et de phtalates en milieu urbain : comparaison des rejets à dominante urbaine (domestique) par rapport à des rejets purement industriels. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1113⟩. ⟨pastel-00804982⟩

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